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       Other important mosquito borne arboviruses with a more restricted distribution were noted by Service (2008).  Included here are Ross River Virus (Alphavirus) in Australasia, Sindbis (Alphavirus) in Africa, Australia, Asia and Europe, Murray Valley Encephalatis (Alphavirus) in New Guinea and Australia, and Rift Valley Fever (Bunyavirus) in Yemen, Arabia and Africa.


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 Key References:     <medvet.ref.htm>    <Hexapoda>


Gratz, N.  2006.  Vector- and Rodent-borne Disesese in Europe and North America.  Cambridge Univ. Press, UK.

Matheson, R. 1950.  Medical Entomology.  Comstock Publ. Co, Inc.  610 p.

Service, M.  2008.  Medical Entomology For Students.  Cambridge Univ. Press.  289 p

Legner, E. F.  1995.  Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance.  J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59_120.

Legner, E. F..  2000.  Biological control of aquatic Diptera.  p. 847_870.  Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera,

     Vol. 1, Science  Herald, Budapest.  978 p.

Monath, T. P. (ed.)  1988.  Arboviruses:  Epidemiology and Ecology. Volume 1:  General Principals. Volume 2:  African Horse

     Sickness to Dengue.  Volume 3:  Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis to O'nyong nyong.  Volume 4:  Oropouche Fever to

     Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis.  Volume 5:  Vesicular Stomatitis to Yellow Fever.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Muller, R.  2002.  Worms and Human Diseases, 2nd edn.  CABI, Wallingford, UK.

Reeves, W. C. (ed.).  1990.  Epidemiology and Control of Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses in California.  1943-1987.

     Calif. Mosq. & Vector Control Assoc., Sacramento.