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       Ross River Virus is a single-strand RNA alphavirus that is endemic in Australia, New Guinea and other parts of the South Pacific.  It causes a non-lethal but debilitating disease in humans that was originally known as "Epidemic Polyarthritis."  Native mammals and birds in Australia are suspected as reservoir hosts because antibodies of the virus have been isolated from placental and marsupial mammals and some bird species.  The virus might ultimately spread to other geographical areas as travelers from Europe have acquired the virus in Australia.


       Aedes camptorhynchus, the southern saltmarsh mosquito in New Zealand was a known vector, but an eradication campaign has been deemed successful.  Other mosquitoes in Australia that are suspected vectors include Aedes camptorhynchus, Aedes vigilax and Culex annulirostris




       Education of the public living in or travelling to endemic areas is advised to minimise exposure to mosquito bites.  Information should indicate the location of mosquito breeding habitats, and when periods of maximum mosquito activity occur.  Also, the use of protective clothing, appropriate repellents and ways to reduce mosquitoes in the home can reduce the incidence of infection.


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 Key References:     <medvet.ref.htm>    <Hexapoda>


Barber, B., J. T. Denholm & D. Spelman.  2009.  Ross River virus.  Australian Fam. Physician 38(8):  586-589.

Fraser, J. R.  1986.  Epidemic polyarthritis and Ross River virus disease.  Clin. Rheum. Dis. 12:  369-388.

Harley, D., A. Sleigh & S. Ritchie.  2001.  Ross River virus transmission, infection and disease:  a cross-disciplinary review.  Clin.

       Microbiol. Rev.14(4):  909-932.

Harley, D., S. Ritchie, C. Bain & A. C. Sleigh.  2005.  Risks for Ross River virus disease in tropical Australia.  Internatl. J.

       Epidemiology 34(3): 548-555.

Jardine, A., P. J. Neville, C. Dent, C. Webster & M. D. Lindsay.  2014.  Ross River Virus Risk Associated with Dispersal of Aedes

       (Ochlerotatus)  camptorhynchus (Thomson) from Breeding Habitat into Surrounding Residential Areas:  Muddy Lakes, Western Australia.

       Amer. Soc. Trop. Medicine & Hygiene 91:  101-108.

Jardine, A., P. J. Neville & M. D. Lindsay.  2015.  Proximity to Mosquito Breeding Habitat and Ross River Virus Risk in the Peel Region of

       Western Australia.  Vector-Borne & Zoonotic Diseases:  141-146

Matheson, R. 1950.  Medical Entomology.  Comstock Publ. Co, Inc.  610 p.

Service, M.  2008.  Medical Entomology For Students.  Cambridge Univ. Press.  289 p

Legner, E. F.  1995.  Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance.  J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59_120.

Legner, E. F.  2000.  Biological control of aquatic Diptera.  p. 847_870.  Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera,

       Vol. 1, Science  Herald, Budapest.  978 p.

Russell, R. C.  2007.  Ross River virus: ecology and distribution.  Ann. Rev. Entomol. 47:  1-31.

Schleenvoigt, B. T., M. Baier, S. Hagel, C. Forstner, R. Kotsche & M. W. Pletz.  2015.  Ross River virus infection in a Thuringian

       traveller returning from south-east Australia.  Infection 43(2):  229-230.

Vally, H., M. Peel, G. K. Dowse, J. P. Codde, I. Hanigan & M. D. Lindsay.  2012.  Geographic Information Systems used to describe

       the link between the risk of Ross River virus infection and proximity to the Leschenault estuary, WA.  Australian & New Zealand J. Pub.

       Health 36(3):  229-235.