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       Sindbis Virus is a member of the Togaviridae group of alphaviruses.  It was first isolated in Egypt in 1952.  Infection results in a fever and arthralgia, rash and malaise.  The virus occurs primarily in Southern and Eastern Africa, Egypt, Palestine, the Philippines and portions of Australia.  Being an arthropod-borne virus it occurs in nature through transmission between bird hosts and Culex spp. mosquito vectors.  Humans become infected from the bites of infected mosquitoes.  The virus has also been linked to Pogosta Disease in Finland, Ockelbo Disease in Sweden and Karelian Fever in Russia.




       No vaccine or prophylactic medication is available for infection with Sindbis Virus. Prevention involves protective measures against mosquitoes in areas with known virus circulation, including appropriate clothing (long sleeves and trousers) and the application of insect repellent on exposed skin.


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 Key References:     <medvet.ref.htm>    <Hexapoda>


Cao, S. & W. Zhang.  2013.  Characterization of an early-stage fusion intermediate of Sindbis virus using cryoelectron microscopy.  Proc. Natl.

     Acad. Sci. 110(33):  13362-13367.

Frolov, I., R. Hardy & C. M. Rice.  2001.  Cis-acting RNA elements at the 5' end of Sindbis virus genome RNA regulate minus and plus-strand

     RNA synthesis.  RNA 7(11):  1638-1651.

Kurkela, S., T. Manni, A. Vaheri & O. Vapalahti.  2004.  Causative agent of Pogosta disease isolated from blood and skin lesions.  Emerg. Infect.


Matheson, R. 1950.  Medical Entomology.  Comstock Publ. Co, Inc.  610 p.

Service, M.  2008.  Medical Entomology For Students.  Cambridge Univ. Press.  289 p

Legner, E. F.  1995.  Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance.  J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59_120.

Legner, E. F.  2000.  Biological control of aquatic Diptera.  p. 847_870.  Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera,

          Vol. 1, Science  Herald, Budapest.  978 p.