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The Biological and Integrated Control of Agricultural Pests

Emphasizing the Classical Approach by the Use of Imported Natural Enemies


(Contacts)     Dedication


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          GENERAL INDEX        Database List       Major Categories     Biological Control Topics        [Other Web Sites]


            Invading Species In North America                                                                Link to:  Animal & Plant Invasions

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Mycology (Bacteria, Slime Molds, Fungi)

Images of Beneficial Species















Insect Pollination


Invertebrate Zoology








Integrated Pest Management


Animal & Plant Invasions



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GLOSSARY (Scientific Terms)   Beneficial Species Drawings/Photos




Introductory Biological Pest Control  ENTOMOLOGY (An Introduction)


            E. F. Legner Vita          List of Indexes                                                                                                SCROLL DOWN




       Biological control as a discipline had its significant beginnings in the 19th Century to suppress insect invasions and continues to grow in scope and achievements.  The importance of natural enemy components in effective agroecosystem management is increasingly recognized.  This first organization of a textbook focuses on natural enemies to provide a sound foundation for those pursuing biological and integrated control professionally, particularly with emphasis on those aspects which have yielded the greatest number of control successes:  the acquisition, culture, establishment and manipulation of new natural enemy species: Classical Biological Control. 


       Text accompanying each section is paraphrased from cited references.  No claim is made that the bibliography associated with each subject is complete; citations are not meant to include all material published on a particular subject;  however, cross-referencing should access over 95% of the known literature.  Early literature is also stressed because the natural enemies and techniques developed offer viable pest control strategies in the wake of the eclipse on biological control wrought by several decades of broad-spectrum pesticide deployment and diversion to genetic manipulation.  Research on host or prey organisms that is pertinent to an understanding of natural enemies and their culture is included.  Scientific names are temporarily those used in cited references, while an up-dating effort is still in progress.  A great quantity of material has been compiled in this work, and its wide scope should meet the needs of the most exacting practitioner.  The categories selected for this First Edition may be changed in succeeding editions, and pertinent references for each category will be included as they are found in the literature.  Ideas expressed herein that are attributable to cited authors shall be noted as such and duly credited to them.  The General Index will serve to link the various categories.  For additions and corrections to this database please contact the following for consideration emailfl.htm




       The following researchers, who through the middle of the 20th Century and beyond untiringly inspired the goals of biological control and made significant original contributions to a solid foundation for this field, are gratefully acknowledged:  Professors D. P. Annecke, A. P. Arthur, R. R. Askew, B. R. Bartlett, E. C. Bay, B. P. Beirne, F. D. Bennett, T. S. Bellows Jr., E. Biliotti, F. S. Bodenheimer, D. W. Clancy, C. P. Clausen,  H. Compere, H. C. Coppel, P. H. DeBach, E. I. Dietrich, R. L. Doutt, H. El-Heneidy, F. M. Eskafi, S. E. Flanders, T. W. Fisher, C. A. Fleschner, J. M. Franz, D. Gerling, M. A. Ghani, R. D. Goeden, G. Gordh, S. Gothilf, D. J. Greathead, A. T. Gukasjan, K. S. Hagen, I. M. Hall, D. E. Hardy, I. Harpaz, P. Harris, W. J. Hauser, A. M. Heimpel, I. Hodek, M. Hoddle, J. K. Holloway, C. P. Hoyt, C. B. Huffaker, B. Hurpin, A. Jimenez-Jimenez, M. Kogan, E. F. Knipling, A. Krieg, M. Laird, J. J. Lipa, C. W. McCoy, Maldonado-Capriles, E. F. Legner, E. Mellini,  P. S. Messenger, I. Moore, M. H. Muma, E. S. Narayanan, A. J. Nicholson, P. Nuorteva, E. R. Oatman, G. A. Olton, R. E. Orth, D. Pimentel, H. Pschorn-Walcher, V. P. Rao, E. Rivnay, D. Rosen, G. Salt, E. I. Schlinger, A. Silveira-Guido, F. Silvestri, F. J. Simmonds, H. W. Simmonds, R. D. Sjogren, W. A. Smirnoff, H. S. Smith, M. E. Solomon, P. Starý, E. A. Steinhaus, E. Swirski, M. D. Tadic,  M. Tanaka, T. H. C. Taylor, N. A. Telenga, S. V. Trjapitzin,  S-C. Tsai, C. Vago, R. van den Bosch, G. Viggiani, G. A. Viktorov, L. Walters, D. F. Waterhouse, J. Weiser, S. K. Wiackowski, F. Wilson, G. N. Wolcott, B. J. Wood,  J. B. Woolley, K. Yasumatsu, and Hyo-sok Yu.


       Further acknowledgment and appreciation are made to Professors M. T. AliNiazee, L. Andrés, R. C. Axtell, R. Baronowski, T. S. Bellows, D. M. Benjamin,  J. S. Bernal, L. E. Caltagirone, K. P. Carl, D. A. Chant, L. D. Charlet, A. Chiri, B. A. Croft, D. L. Davis, J. J. Drea, A. T. Drooz, A. El-Heneidy, L. E. Ehler,  K. Fabritius, B. A. Federici, D. C. Force, B. Freier, S. Frommer, R. Garcia, C. Geden, U. Gerson, R. D. Goeden, D. Gonzalez, R. R. Granados, P. D. Greany,  S. A. Hassan,  B. A. Hawkins, D. H. Headrick, Y. Hirose, M. M. T. Hokkanen, M. A. Hoy, J. Huber, C. M. Ignoffo, M. W. Johnson, H. Kajita, R. Klunker, J. Lasalle, L. M. LeBeck, S. Long, R. F. Luck,  J. C. Luhman, M. Mackauer, J. A. McMurtry, R. A. Medved, J. W. Mertins, P. B. Morgan, B. A. Mullens, Y. Murakami, S. Nagarkatti, R. S. Patterson, W. Peet, J. J. Petersen, R. L. Pienkowski, D. Pimentel, G. O. Poinar, Jr., , H. T. Reynolds, R. Ripa.-Schaul, D. A. Rutz, R. B. Ryan, M. F. Schuster, H. H. Shorey, R. Stouthamer, S. N. Thompson, P. H. Timberlake, T. Tretiakova, M. Tyndale-Biscoe,  T. R. Unruh, J. C. van Lenteren, R. L., Ridgway, J., Ridsdill-Smith, S. B. Vinson, M. Wallace, R. W. Warkentin, R. M. Weseloh, G. Wylie, M. Wysoki, and G. Zinna  for their encouragement and counsel.   The assistance of the Beneficial Insectary & Rincon-Vitova Insectary was also vital in the acquisition and storage of data.  In particular, the encouragement of Everett Dietrick, Sinthya Penn and Glenn Scriven was crucial.  Max Badgley and Ernest White created many of the photographic illustrations wilst directing the Quarantine Insectary at The University of California.


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       Files were created in Microsoft Word 2000.   Italics are represented in underlined or true italics format.  Non-English references are given in English whenever possible, or in French, German, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, each with characteristic letters and accents.  The Czech alphabet, because of its phonetic quality, is used to cite references in Slavic languages.  This database is progressively  corrected, updated, distributed free of charge; and should not be reviewed, abstracted or quoted without agreement of the cited authors and or publishers.






     This site is an international, intergovernmental, not-for-profit database coordinated by researchers in the University of California and associated agencies worldwide.  Its mission is to facilitate the dissemination, application and generation of scientific knowledge in support of sustainable solutions to problems in agriculture, forestry, human health and the management of natural resources, and with particular attention to the needs of developing countries.