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                                                BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL -- PART II

 

                                                ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS                                                  

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Section 7 <bc-7.htm>

The Role of Parasitoids and Predators in Natural Control

  Examples of Stability

  Measuring the Force of Natural Control

  Nature of Parasitism

  Occurrence of Parasitoidism in Insects

  Taxonomic Groups Important to Biological Control

  General Ecology of Parasitoids

  Reproductive Strategies.

  Percent Parasitization

  Population Regulation

  Conclusions

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 8 <bc-8.htm>

Climate as a Factor in the Natural Control of Organisms

  Introduction and Discussion

  Examples (cherry fruit fly, face fly, red scale, walnut aphid,

      spotted alfalfa aphid, Japanese beetle, alfalfa weevil, black

       scale, Klamath weed, Mexican bean beetle, American grizzly

       bear, aquatic weeds, house fly, eye gnats)

  Conclusions...

  Exercises...

  References

 

Section 9 <bc-9.htm>

Genetic Considerations in Biological Control (Acquisition of Natural Enemies, Breeding, Mass Releases)

  The Natural Population at its Origin

  Natural Enemy Introductions

  Improving Fitness of Natural Enemies

  Improving Tolerance to Pesticides

  Genetic Engineering

  Prolonged Culture

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 10  <bc-10.htm>

Extranuclear Events Influencing Behavior and Fecundity in Parasitoids and Other Animals  

  Direct Effects of the Cytoplasmic Genome

  Chemical Substances Affecting Behavior

  Muscidifurax Parasitoid Complex

  Exercises

  References

 

 

Section 11 <bc-11.htm>

Biological Control Precepts

  Homopterous Insects as Ideal Candidates

  Examples Demonstrating Precepts

      Cottony-cushion scale

      Florida red scale

      California red scale

      Olive scale

      Rhodesgrass scale

      Walnut aphid

      Orb-weaving spiders

  The Importance of Single Species in Determining the Average

        Abundance of Plants and Animals

  Table 11.1 (Examples showing host densities dependent on one 

        or two species)

  Conclusions

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 12 <bc-12.htm>

Competitive Displacement, Exclusion and Coexistence.

  Mechanisms of Competitive Displacement Examples

  The Coexistence Principle

  Competitive Displacement of Non-homologues

  Competitive Displacement and Biological Control

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 13 <bc-13.htm>

Habitat, Host-finding and Host Acceptance

  Habitat Effects on Natural Enemies

  Characteristics of the Habitat that Attract or Repel Natural

       Enemies

  Host Food Affects Suitability for Parasitization

  Other Influences of Habitat

  Habitat Diversity vs. Similarity Affects Population Stability

  Host Finding

  Host Acceptance

  Host Suitability

  Host Regulation

  Manner and Place of Oviposition

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 14 <bc-14.htm>

Problems and Calculations