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BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL  -- PART III

 

                                                BEHAVIOR, ONTOGENY & REPRODUCTION

                                                                 IN NATURAL ENEMIES

                                                                                                                                            (Contacts)

 

 

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Section 15 <bc-15.htm>

Parthenogenesis

  Cytology

  Arrhenotoky vs. Thelytoky

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 16 <bc-16.htm>

Arrhenotokous / Thelytokous Reproduction

  Sex Determination

     Cytology

     Genetics

     Early Hypotheses

     Modern Hypotheses

  Some Generalities in Arrhenotokous Reproduction

     Biparental Males

     Androgenesis

     Polyploidy

     The R locus

     Incompatibility Factors

     Sex Intergrades

  Functional Aspects of Arrhenotokous Reproduction

  Extranuclear Inheritance and Polygenes in Arrhenotoky

  Recombinant Hymenopteran Males

  Estimations of the Number of Active Polygenic Loci

  Coefficient of Heritability

  Dominance

  Some Generalities in Thelytokous Reproduction

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 17 <bc-17.htm>

Embryology / Ontogeny / Anatomy

  Early Stages of Ontogeny

    Organization of the Ripe Egg

    Development of the Egg

    Cleavage.

    Gastrulation

    Segmentation

  Prenatal Development in Hymenoptera Specifically

    Egg Size & Shape

    Common Egg Shapes in Parasitoids

  Polyembryony in Hymenoptera

  Post Natal Development

    Larval Feeding

    Larval Respiration

    Larval Anatomy

    Hypermetamorphosis

    Prepupa

    Pupa

    Rate of Development

    Exit from the Host

    Male Reproductive System

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 18 <bc-18.htm>

Oogenesis-Ovisorption (oosorption, egg resorption)

  General Characteristics

  Physiology of Ovigenesis-ovisorption

  Vitellogenesis (yolk formation)

  Classification of Hymenoptera by the Female's Reproductive

      System

  Variability in Ovisorption Process among Hymenoptera

    Ovisorption Rate

    Effect of Ovisorption on Longevity

    Work on Nasonia vitripennis

  Exercises.

  References

 

Section 19 <bc-19.htm>

Facultative Sex Regulation

  Spermatheca and Spermathecal Gland

    Types of Spermathecae in Hymenoptera

  Sex Regulation Considerations

  Exercises

  References

 

 

 

Section 20 <bc-20.htm>

Behavioral, Ecological and Physiological Factors

     affecting the Sex Ratio

  Behavioral and Ecological Phenomena

     Topographical Environment

     Larval Competition

     Humidity & Light Intensity

     Host Size

     Host Availability

     Host / Parasitoid Density

     Oviposition Restraint

     Mating

     Delayed & Interrupted Oviposition

     Heteronomous Parasitoids

     Theoretical Considertions

  Physiological Phenomena

     High Temperature

     Low Temperature

     Nutritional Influences

     Age

     Photoperiod

     Selective Breeding

     Microorganisms

     Paternal Sex Ratio

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 21 <bc-21.htm>

Determination of Progeny Number

  Behavioral and Ecological Phenomena

     Courtship & Copulation

     Host Location

     Host Attack & Paralysis

     Host Preferences

     Host Transport

     Progeny Defense

     Oviposition Restraint

     Host / Parasitoid Density

     Temperature

     Host Size

     Humidity

     Adult Parasitoid Food

     Larval Competition

     Ant Activity

     Learning

  Physiological phenomena

     Nutrition (host-feeding)

     Temperature

     Humidity

     Selective Breeding

     Mating

     Ovisorption & Ovulation Effects

     Glands

  Chemical Communication

  Genetic and Extrachromosomal Phenomena

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 22 <bc-22.htm>

Host Defense Reactions

  Encapsulation (phagocytosis)

  Melanization

  Humoral Reactions

Incumbered Host Defenses

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 23 <bc-23.htm>

Diapause in Developmental Stages and the Imago

  Photoperiod

    Direct & Indirect Action

    Perception

    Photoperiodicity in Geographic Races

    Seasonal Forms

    Sensitive Stages

    Induction

  Characteristics of Diapause Termination

  Diapause in Parasitic Insects

    Endocrine Processes Involved

    Theories & Experiments

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 24 <bc-24.htm>

Caste Bias

  Characteristics

  Generalizations on Caste Determination

  Exercises

  References