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   BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL -- PART IV

 

TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED

                                    IN IMPLEMENTATION

                                                                              (Contacts)

 

 

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Section 25 <bc-25.htm>

Discovery & Importation of Natural Enemies

  Purpose & Need

  Planning & Preparation

  Foreign Collaborators

  Problems Encountered by Explorers from Universities

  Choosing Targets and Procedure

  Maximizing Success Potential and Reducing Risks

  Securing Natural Enemies in the Native Range

  Searching Outside the Native Range

  Judgments of Natural Enemy Capability

    Terrestrial Vertebrates

    Phytophagous Arthropods & Phytopathogens

    Terrestrial Scavengers

    Aquatic Vertebrates & Invertebrates

    Parasitic & Predaceous Arthropods

  Considerations on Geographical Origin of the Pest

    Saissetia oleae

    Circulifer tenellus

    Heliothis zea

    Cydia pomonella

    Aonidiella aurantii

    Tetranychus spp.

    Phthorimaea operculella

    Nezara viridula

    Pectinophora gossypiella

    Misc. medically important Diptera

 

  Future Direction and Emphasis

  Conclusions

  Exercises

  References

 

Section 26 <bc-26.htm>

Integration of Other Pest Control Methods

  Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

  Pest-Upset Versus Pest Resurgence

  Drawbacks of Chemical Control

  Selective Pesticides

  Factors Determining Physical Selectivity

 

Conditions Favoring the Adoption of Biological Control

       Strategies

  Political & Economic Framework For Biological Control

  Research Allocation For Research

  The Political Economy of Biological Control Research &

       Research Needs

  Socio-Economics of Biological Control

  References

 

 

Section 27 <bc-27.htm>

Quarantine Procedures

  Establishing Quarantine Facilities

  Protocol in Quarantine Operations

  References

 

Section 28 <bc-28.htm>

Culture of Hosts For Natural Enemies

  Host Food

  Contaminants

  Intraspecific Competition

  Genetic Considerations

  Physical Environment

  Behavior

  Techniques

  Quality

  Exercises

  References to Chapt. 28, 29 & 30 <bc-30.ref

 

Section 29 <bc-29.htm>

Culture of Natural Enemies

  Contamination

  Genetic Change & Diversity

  Synthetic Diets

  Entomophaga / Host Interactions (Host Type & Quality)

  Diapause

  Mating

  Sex-ratio Changes

  Rearing Density

  Behavior

  Techniques

  Quality Control

  Exercises

  References to Chapt. 28, 29 & 30 <bc-30.ref>

 

Section 30  <bc-30.htm>

Colonization of Natural Enemies

  Liberation Procedure

  Sampling and Distribution (devices)

  Factors Influencing Establishment

  Exercises

  References to Chapt. 28, 29 & 30 <bc-30.ref>