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                         BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL DATABASE

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Background & Overview     Ecological Considerations     Behavior, Ontogeny & Reproduction in Natural Enemies

 

Techniques Employed in Implementation     Special Research Groups & Integrated Control

 

Populations     Evaluation of Natural Enemies     Detailed Cases of Biological Control     References

 

 

BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW  

 

[Also view:  Expanded List]

 

Section 1    <bc-1.htm>

  Introduction & Scope of Biological Pest Control

 

Section 2    <bc-2.htm>

  History of Biological Control

 

Section 3    <bc-3.htm>

  Biological Characteristics of Arthropophagous

  Arthropods.

 

Section 4    <bc-4.htm>

  Organizations Active in Biological Control

 

Section 5    <bc-5.htm>

  Economic Gains from Biological Control &

  Analysis of Successes in Biological Control

 

Section 6    <bc-6.htm>

  Trends & Future Possibilities

 

ECOLOGICAL  CONSIDERATIONS

 

Section 7    <bc-7.htm>

  The Role of Parasitoids and Predators in Natural

  Control

 

Section 8    <bc-8.htm>

  Climate as a Factor in the Natural Control of

  Organisms

 

Section 9    <bc-9.htm>

  Genetic Considerations in Biological Control

  (Acquisition of Natural  Enemies, Breeding, Mass

  Releases)

 

Section 10    <bc-10.htm>

  Extranuclear Events Influencing Behavior and Fecundity in Parasitoids and Other Animals  

 

Section 11    <bc-11.htm>

  Biological Control Precepts

 

Section 12    <bc-12.htm>

  Competitive Displacement, Exclusion and Coexistence.

 

Section 13    <bc-13.htm>

  Habitat, Host-finding and Host Acceptance

 

Section 14    <bc-14.htm>

  Problems and Calculations

 

BEHAVIOR, ONTOGENY AND REPRODUCTION

IN NATURAL ENEMIES

 

Section 15    <bc-15.htm>

  Parthenogenesis

 

Section 16    <bc-16.htm>

  Arrhenotokous / Thelytokous Reproduction

 

Section 17    <bc-17.htm>

  Embryology / Ontogeny / Anatomy

 

Section 18    <bc-18.htm>

  Oogenesis-Ovisorption (oosorption, egg resorption)

 

Section 19    <bc-19.htm>

  Facultative Sex Regulation

 

Section 20    <bc-20.htm>

  Behavioral, Ecological and Physiological Factors

  affecting the Sex Ratio

 

Section 21    <bc-21.htm>

  Determination of Progeny Number

 

Section 22    <bc-22.htm>

  Host Defense Reactions

 

Section 23    <bc-23.htm>

  Diapause in Developmental Stages and the Imago

 

Section 24    <bc-24.htm>

  Caste Bias

 

TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED IN
 IMPLEMENTATION

 

Section 25    <bc-25.htm>

  Discovery & Importation of Natural Enemies (Foreign

  Exploration)

 

Section 26    <bc-26.htm>

  Integration of Other Pest Control Methods &

  Conditions Favoring the Adoption of Biological

  Control Strategies

 

Section 27    <bc-27.htm>

  Quarantine Procedures

 

Section 28    <bc-28.htm>

Culture of Hosts For Natural Enemies

 

Section 29    <bc-29.htm>

Culture of Natural Enemies

 

Section 30     <bc-30.htm>

Colonization of Natural Enemies

 

SPECIAL RESEARCH GROUPS &

INTEGRATED CONTROL

 

Section 31    <bc-31.htm>

  Biological Control of Coccidae

 

Section 32    <bc-32.htm>

  Biological Control in Deciduous Orchards

 

Section 33     <bc-33.htm>

  Biological Control in Tropical & Subtropical Orchards 

 

Section 34    <bc-34.htm>

  Biological Control in Forests

 

Section 35    <bc-35.htm>

  Biological Control in Glasshouses

 

Section 36    <bc-36.htm>

  Biological Control of Arthropods in Grapes

 

Section 37    <bc-37.htm>

  Biological Control of Medical & Veterinary Pests

    <PICTORIAL  KEY>

 

Section 38     <bc-38.htm>

  Biological Control of Noxious Plants & Weeds

 

Section 39    <bc-39.htm>

  Biological Control in Cities & Towns

 

Section 40    <bc-40.htm>

  Biological Control of and by Acarina

 

 

 

 

Section 41    <bc-41.htm>

  Biological Control of Plant Pathogens

 

Section 42    <bc-42.htm>

  Biological Control of Arthropods in Range, Forage &

       Grain Crops

 

Section 43    <bc-43.htm>

  Biological Control of Arthropods in Row & Short-

     term Crops

 

Section 44    <bc-44.htm>

  Biological Control of Tephritidae

 

Section 45    <bc-45.htm>

  Biological Control of and Implementing Vertebrates 

 

Section 46    <bc-46.htm>

  Pesticide Resistance in Beneficial Organisms

 

Section 47    <bc-47.htm>

  Natural Enemies in Integrated Control

 

Section 48    <bc-48.htm>

  Enhancing Natural Enemy Impact

 

Section 49    <bc-49.htm>

   Augmentive & Inundative Strategies With Natural

        Enemies

 

Section 50    <bc-50.htm>

  Biological Control Using Pathogens

 

Section 51    <bc-51.htm>

  Taxonomy of Natural Enemies &

  Keys to Principal Families:  <keys.htm>  

    <TAXNAMES>

 

Section 51-B    <bc-51b.htm>

 Morphology of Insects (for Natural Enemy

     Identification) 

 

Section 52    <bc-52.htm>

  Autocidal & Pheromonal Control

 

Section 53    <bc-53.htm>

  Cultural Control Methods

 

Section 54    <bc-54.htm>

  Selective Use of Pesticides

 

Section 55    <bc-55.htm>

  Plant Resistance

 

Section 56    <bc-56.htm>

  Predator Biology & Ecology

 

Section 57    <bc-57.htm>

  Nutrition of Natural Enemies

 

Section 58    <bc-58.htm>

  Environmental Management

 

Section 58B    <bc-58B.htm> [in process]

  Biological Control in the Nearctic North of Mexico

 

Section 59    <bc-59.htm>

  Biological Control in Australasia

    References: <bc-59.ref.htm>

 

Section 60     bc-60.htm>

  Biological Control in China & Korea {in process]

    References:  <bc-60.ref.htm>

 

Section 61    <bc-61.htm> [in process]

  Biological Control in the Ethiopian Region

    References:  <bc-61.ref.htm>

 

Section 62    <bc-62.htm>

  Biological Control in Eurasia

    References:  <bc-62.ref.htm>

 

Section 62B    <bc-62B.htm>

  Biological Control in India

    References:  <bc-62B.ref.htm>

 

Section 63     <bc-63.htm>

  Biological Control in the Middle East

    References:  <bc-63.ref.htm>

 

Section 64    <bc-64.htm>

  Biological Control in Japan

    References:  <bc-64.ref.htm>

 

Section 65    <bc-65.htm>

  Biological Control in Southeast Asia

    References:  <bc-65.ref.htm>

 

Section 66    <bc-66.htm>

  Biological Control in the Neotropics

    References:  <bc-66.ref.htm>

 

Section 67    <bc-67.htm> [in process]

  Biological Control in Pacific Islands   

   References:   <bc-67.ref.htm>

 

Section 68    <bc-68.htm>

   Naturally Occurring Biological Control in Canada

 

Section 69    <bc-69.htm>

   Naturally Occurring Biological Control in the 

   Eastern United States

 

Section 70    <bc-70.htm>

   Naturally Occurring Biological Control in the

   Western United States

 

POPULATIONS

 

Section 71    <bc-71.htm>

  Population Theories & <Problems.htm>

 

 

EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES

 

Section 72    <bc-72.htm>,

  Life Tables and Evaluation of Natural Enemies

    References:  <bc-72.ref.htm>

 

Section 73    <bc-73.htm>

  Experimental Techniques to Evaluate Natural

        Enemies

    General References <bc-73.ref.htm>

 

 

DETAILED CASES OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

 

 

POOLED REFERENCES       BIBLIOGRAPHIES

 

      GENERAL REFERENCES