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INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL 1/

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INTRODUCTION

Manipulation of Natural Enemies & the Environment

 

 

Introduction & Scope of Biological Control

Experimental Design & Sampling

 

 

National/International Organizations Active in BioControl

Systematics & Biological Control

 

 

History of Biological Control

Analysis of Successes in Biological Control

 

 

Concepts in Population Ecology Important to BioControl

Economic Gains From Biological Control

 

 

Biological Characteristics of Arthropodophagous Organisms

Biological Control of Weeds

 

 

Ontogeny Sex Determ., Parthenogenesis, Host Selection

Biological Control of Medical & Veterinary Arthropods

 

 

Foreign Exploration For Beneficial Organisms

Arthropod Pathology

 

 

Quarantine Procedures During Importation

Integration of Other Pest Control Methods

 

 

Colonization, Recovery & Evaluation of Natural enemies

Trends & Future Possibilities

GENERAL REFERENCES

<ADVANCED BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL>

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INTRODUCTION

 

This set of outlines and readings is compiled specifically for Entomology 129 and 129-L, "Introduction to Biological Control" presented at the University of California, Riverside. The course consists of 2 lecture and 2 laboratory units per week.  The majority of students will probably find some extra instructor contact time necessary; therefore, the laboratory is accessible for additional work at night and at certain times during the day and on weekends. The instructors are available for consultation during unscheduled hours.  A number of oral quizzes interspersed with written examinations will be given, and a specific date will be designated by which time the quiz must have been taken. The oral quizzes will also serve as discussion sections. A knowledge of the lecture, assigned textbook materials and laboratory experiments is expected.  It is believed that the material presented offers a sound overview for those students who will pursue additional advanced courses in biological control. Emphasis is on those aspects which have yielded the greatest number of control successes: the acquisition, culture, establishment and manipulation of new natural enemy species. The numerous citations are meant to cover only that material which will familiarize the student with the subject matter in a broad sense. Appreciation is expressed to Professors P. H. DeBach, C. A. Fleschner and S. E. Flanders (all deceased) who have taught this course in previous years and who have made valuable contributions. Further acknowledgment is made to Professors C. P. Clausen, B. R. Bartlett, T. S. Bellows, T. W. Fisher, R. D. Goeden, D. Gonzalez, G. Gordh, I. M. Hall, R. F. Luck, J. A. McMurtry, E. R. Oatman, S. N. Thompson and P. H. Timberlake of the Department of Entomology for their counsel. Appreciation is also expressed to the numerous students who have contributed to the acquisition of information presented while enrolled in this course in previous years.

 

 

INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL

 

Course Outline

 

Section 1 <ENT129.1>  Introduction and Scope of Biological Control

     Economics, Important Terms, References

 

Section 2 <BC-4.htm >  National and International Organizations Active in Biological Control

     International Institute of Biological Control , L'Organisation Internationale de Lutte Biologique, United States Department of  Agriculture,  Individual Countries, References

 

Section 3 <ENT129.3>  History of Biological Control

     Insect Predation, Insect Parasitoidism , Biological Control in the 18th Century, Biological Control in the Early 19th Century, Biological Control in the Late 19th Century Biological Control in the 20th Century, References

 

Section 4 <ENT129.4>  Concepts in Population Ecology Important to Biological Control

     Early Period, Contemporary Period, References

 

Section 5 <ENT129.5>  Biological Characteristics of Arthropophagous Arthropods

     Groups of Parasitoids, Hyperparasitism, Autoparasitism, Indirect Hyperparasitism, Facultative Hyperparasitism, Multiple Parasitism, The Imago or Adult Parasitoid Mating, Ovigenesis, Host-feeding, Ovisorption, References

 

Section 6 <ENT129.6>  Ontogeny, Sex Determination, Parthenogenesis, Host Selection, Polygenes

     Ontogeny, Sex Determination and Parthenogenesis, Host Selection, Polygenes and Extranuclear Inheritance, References

 

Section 7 <ENT129.7>  Foreign Exploration For Beneficial Organisms

     Guidelines in Foreign Exploration, Procedures in Planning and Preparation For Explorations, Recognition of Promising Natural Enemies Abroad, Good Collection Sites Precautions, References

 

Section 8 <ENT129.8>  Quarantine Procedures During Importation

     History in the United States, Quarantine Policy at the University of California, Quarantine Procedures, References

 

Section 9 <ENT129.9>  Colonization, Recovery & Evaluation of Natural Enemies

     Colonization, Direct Field Releases of Imported Organisms, Ecological Factors Influencing Success or Failure, Release Numbers, Redistribution, Recovery.  Prediction of Success, Evaluation, References

 

Section 10 <ENT129.10>  Manipulation of Natural Enemies and the Environment.

     Justification, Reasons for Manipulation, Methods Employed,  Special Details, References

 

Section 11 <ENT129.11>  Experimental Design & Sampling

     Importance, Approaches, Methods, Sampling Routine, Techniques For Evaluation, Methods For Detecting Predation/Parasitism, References

 

Section 12 <ENT129.12>  Systematics & Biological Control

     History, Importance of Taxonomy to Biological Control, Natural Enemy Identification, Biological Control Contributions to Taxonomy, Sources of Taxonomic Expertise References

 

Section 13 <ENT129.13>  Analysis of Successes in Biological Control.

     Island Theory, Multiple Versus "The Best" Species, Clausen's 3-Host Generation/ 3-Year Rule, Single Larval Parasitoid Importations, Single Pupal Parasitoid Generalizations, Pest Groups, Natural Enemy Groups, References

 

Section 14 <ENT129.14>  Economic Gains From Biological Control

     Cost Effectiveness, Biological Control From Naturally Occurring Organisms, Estimation of the Benefits and Costs of Classical Biological Control, References

 

Section 15 <BC-38.htm > Biological Control of Weeds

     Losses and Numbers of Weeds, Concepts and Techniques Unique to Biological Weed Control, Emphasis Biological Weed Control.  Other Natural Enemies, Current Research Areas, Characteristics of Effective Phytophagous Arthropods, Population Regulation Mechanism, References

 

Section 16 <BC-37.htm >  Biological Control of Arthropods of Medical & Veterinary Importance

     Overview, Mosquitoes, Synanthropic Diptera, Snails, References

 

Section 17 <BC-50.htm >Arthropod Pathology.

     Types of Diseases, Practical Usage, References

 

Section 18 <ENT129.18>  Integration of Other Pest Control Methods.

     Need For, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Frequently Used Terms, Pest-Upset Versus Pest Resurgence, Drawbacks of Chemical Control Selective Pesticides, Factors Determining Physical Selectivity, References

 

Section 19 <BC-6.htm >  Trends & Future Possibilities

     Complexities, Stimulation to Theories in Population Dynamics and Ecology, Future of Classical Biological Control, Future of Integrated Control

                     Future of Insect Pathology, Future of Biological Weed Control, Future of Biological Control of

             Medically Important Pests,

              References