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Insecta: Diptera

KEY TO COMMON FLY GENERA

 

of Flies Around Dwellings that Cause Myiasis & Suck Blood

(Contact)

 

 

Please CLICK on underlined links to view images or to navigate within the key:

Also See: <Diptera Details>

 

The expansion of international trade poses a continuous possibility of invasions by exotic species of Muscidae to America. There are two species of Fannia (F. canicularis & F. scalaris) that occasionally cause intestinal myiasis in humans. In America Stomoxys calcitrans and Musca domestica are present, with additional species occurring in the Eastern Hemisphere. Three species of Muscina (M. pascuorum, M. assimilis and M. stabulans) are present in America. Of the three subspecies of Musca domestica occurring in Africa ("Boreal", "Savanna" and "Port"), only one, the "Port" subspecies has spread worldwide by 2016. The Posterior Spiracular Plates and Cephalopharyngeal Skeletons of some Diptera larvae are used for identification.

 

[Also see: Key to Larvae, Cephalopharyngea & Posterior Spiracles]

 

[Family Details: Muscidae]

Part I: Hypolleural row of bristles not present _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1

 

Part II: Hypopleural bristles present (Fig. 1) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 11

 

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1. Wing vein #6 very short; 7th vein curves under 6th; 4th vein straight _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Fannia (Homalomyia)

 

Wing vein #6 longer; 7th vein straight; 4th vein bowed near its distal end (Fig. 2) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2

 

2. Proboscis long and directed forward; equiped for piercing _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3

 

Proboscis not very long; labella thick and not for piercing _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5

 

3. Arista rays feathery (Fig. 3) [Tse-tse flies of Africa] _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Glossina spp. Distribution

 

Arista rays simple and not feathery _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4

 

4. Palps shorter than proboscis _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Stomoxys spp. & Head & Mouthparts

 

Palps almost as long as proboscis _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Haematobia spp.

 

5. Arista naked _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Synthesiomyia spp.

 

Arista toothed and feathery on the top side _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Hemichlora spp.

 

6. Species are about as large as bumblebees with prominent black and yellow pile _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Hypodermodes spp.

 

Species smaller like the housefly and without dense black and yellow pile _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7

 

7. Metallic blue-black or green color with stripes evident on the thorax anterior margin _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8

 

Color solid gray or black _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9

 

8. A bristle on middle tibia surface beyond center _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Pyrellia spp-1, Pyrellia spp-2

 

Bristle on middle tibia may be present but greatly reduced in size _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Morellia spp.

 

9. Wing's 4th vein clearly angled at terminus (Fig. 2); sternopleural bristles 1:2; eyes are bare _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Musca spp-1. Musca spp 2.

 

Fourth wing vein's terminus slightly bowed (Fig. 4) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10

 

10. Eyes are covered with hair; sternoplural bristles 2:2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Myiospila spp.

 

Eyes without hair; sternopleural bristles 1:2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Muscina spp.

 

11. Body color grayish or black and never shiny metallic; arista bare or pubescent _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 12

 

Body is either blue-green or metallic blue, or only the abdomen is shiny metallic blue-black _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 13

 

12. A curly yellow pile among the thorax macrochaetae with a black shiny background _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Pollenia rudis

 

Thorax not yellow and curly pile has 4 distinct grayish lines _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Wohlfahrtia vigil

 

13. Wing's first vein basal section with fine hairs _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 14

 

Wing's first vein basal section bare _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 17

 

14. The face and bucca are yellow with a yellow pile; one posthumeral bristle present _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Callitroga spp.

 

Bucca black with black hairs; frequently 2 posthumeral bristles present _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 15

 

15. White squamae and anterior acrosticals (alt. spelling - acrostichals) separated from surrounding hairs _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 16

 

Squamae darker and anterior acrosticals are not distinct from surrounding hairs; prothoracic spiracles is black _ _ Protophormia spp.

 

16. Four intra-alar bristles present; 6 or more marginal scutellar bristles and the mesothoracic spiracles a dark orange or black color _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Protocalliphora spp.

 

Two intra-alar bristles present; 4 marginal scutellar bristles and mesothoracid spiracles is a light-orange color _ _ _ _ _ _ Phormia spp.

 

17. Calypter or lower squamae's upper surface is bare (Fig. 1) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Lucilia spp.

 

The upper surface of calypter is obviously pilose _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 18

 

18. Two bristles occur near the middle on the exterior surface of front tibia; one sublateral bristle is present _ _ _ _ _ _ Cynomyopsis spp.

 

Only one but rarely 2 bristles near the middle on the exterior surface of front tibia; 3 sublateral bristles present _ _ _ _ Calliphora spp.

 

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SEPARATE KEYS TO MUSCINA, CALLIPHORA

 

& LUCILIA SPECIES

 

MUSCINA

 

1b. Legs completely black; palpi reddish yellow _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Muscina pascuorum

 

Legs not completely black and frequently some yellow present. If black then palpi are also black _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2b

 

2b. Palps black; tibiae are mostly black although they may have a yellow tinge _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Muscina assimilis

 

Palpi yellow; tibiae and distal portion of femora are yellow _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Muscina stabulans

 

CALLIPHORA [Calliphora viridescens - Head; C. viridescens - Thorax; Calliphora sp. -Wing]

 

1c. Three intra-alar bristles present _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Calliphora livida

 

2c. Two intra-alar bristles present and bucca black. A reddish beard present _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Calliphora vomitoria

 

Two intra-alar bristles present but bucca is brownish or reddish; beard is black _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Calliphora vicina

 

LUCILIA

 

1d. Two postacrosticals present (Fig. 1) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Lucilia illustris

 

2d. Three postacrosticals present, and palpi are black _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Lucilia silvarum

 

Three postacrosticals present but palpi are yellow _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Lucilia sericata

 

 

 

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Key References: <medvet.ref.htm> <Hexapoda>

 

Brown, B.V. 2001. Flies, gnats, and mosquitoes.. In Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Volume 2. Academic Press. pp. 815-826

Hewitt, C. G. 1912. Fannia (Homolomyia) canicularis Linn. and F. scalaris Fab.. An account of the bionomics of the larvae and their relation to

myiasis of the intestinal and urinary tracts. Parasitol. 5: 161-74.

Matheson, R. 1950. Medical Entomology. Comstock Publ. Co, Inc. 610 p.

Oldroyd, H. 1964. The natural history of flies. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London. 324 pp.

Service, M. 2008. Medical Entomology For Students. Cambridge Univ. Press. 289 p

Legner, E. F. 1995. Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance. J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59-120.

Legner, E. F. 2000. Biological control of aquatic Diptera. p. 847-870. Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera,

Vol. 1, Science Herald, Budapest. 978 p.

Skevington, J.H. & P. T. Dang, eds. 2002. Exploring the diversity of flies (Diptera). Biodiversity 3(4): 3-27.

Walker, F. M. 1920. Wohlfahrtia vigil (Walker) as a human parasite. J. parasit. 71-1-7.

Walton, W. R. 1909. An illustrated glossary of chaetotaxy and anatomical terms used in describing Diptera. Ent. News 20: 307-19.