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An Introduction to Medical Entomology

For educational purposes.

 

Insecta: Diptera

TABANIDAE KEY

(Horseflies & Deerflies, etc.)

(Contact)

 

 

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[See: Tabanidae Details]

 

Among the Tabanidae there is a considerable size range. Many of the larger species are built heavily (Fig. 1) and are known for their biting habits (Fig. 2). Their color varies from brown to black with some species having green stripes on their abdomen. The head is large and shaped like one-half of a circle. The sexes are distinguished by males having holoptic eyes and females dichoptic eyes (Fig. 1). Antennae are not very long but somewhat wide (Fig. 3 & Fig. 4).

 

This is a large family with over 62 genera. Two subfamilies, Pangoniinae and Tabaninae include eleven medically important genera, which are Apatoletes, Atylotus, Chrysops, Diachlorus, Esenbeckia, Goniops, Haematopota, Silvius, Stenotabanus, Stonemyia and Tabanus.

 

The present key separates these 11 genera genera (unmarked images created from collection specimens).

 

 

1. The hind tibiae have spurs at their tip. Ocelli are frequently present _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Subfamily Pangoniinae 2

The hind tibiae do not have spurs at their tip, and ocelli are not present _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Subfamily Tabaninae 7

 

Subfamily Pangoniinae

 

2. The flagellum, or 3rd segment of the antennae, has 5 prominent annuli _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3

 

The flagellum has 8 annuli _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4

 

3. The pedicel, or 2nd segment of the antennae, is approximately 1/2 as long as the scape, or 1st segment _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Silvius spp.

 

The pedicel is more than 1/2 as long as the scape or almost as long. The wings are usually infuscated, picturelike (Fig. 3 & Fig. 4) _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Chrysops spp.

 

4. The eyes of females are acutely angled above. The basal part of the wing is infuscated _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Goniops spp.

 

The female eye is not angled above. Wings are of uniform color _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5

 

5. The maxillary palpi are short, stubby and about as long as the proboscis _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Apatolestes spp.

 

Maxillary palpi are slender and shorter than the proboscis _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6

 

6. Wing cell R-5 is petiolate _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Esenbeckia spp.

 

Wing cell R-5 is open and not petiolate _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Stonemyia spp.

 

Subfamily Tabaninae

 

7. The third antennal segment has 4 annuli. Wings are gray in color with small white spots _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Haematopota spp.

 

The third antennal segment has 5 annuli. Wings have a pattern and distinct from previous _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8

 

8. The basal part of the 3rd antennal segment does not have a projecting tooth on the dorsum. The eyes are bare. Wings have at least

one subapical brown spot _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Diachlorus spp.

 

The basal part of the 3rd antennal segment is not projected dorsally. If an angle is present then the eyes are bare _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9

 

9. The eyes are clearly hairy. An ocellar tubercle is absent. The female eyes have a single diagonal purple line. Palpi are not black and

the abdomen does not have a dorsal stripe _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Atylotus spp.

 

Eyes are either hairy or bare but without the diagonal line. Either the palpus is black or the abdomen has a narrow dorsal stripe

(Fig. 1) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Tabanus spp. & Stenotabanus spp.

 

 

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

 

Key References: <medvet.ref.htm> <Hexapoda>

 

Anderson, J. F. 1985. The control of horse flies and deer flies (Diptera: Tabanidae). Myia 3: 547-98.

Anthony, D. W. 1962. Tabanids as disease vectors. IN: Biological Transmission of Disease Agents. Academic Press, NY. p. 93-107.

Cheke, R. A., J. Mas & J. F. Chainey. 2003. Potential vectors of Ioiasis and other tabanids on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. Med. Vet.

Ent. 17: 221-3.

Chippaux, J. P., B. Bouchite, M. Demanov, I. Morlais & G. LeGoff. 2000. Density and dispersal of the Iolasis vector Chrysops dimidiata in

southern Cameroon. Med. & Vet. Ent. 14: 339-44.

 

Foil, L. D. 1989. Tabanids as vectors of disease agents. Parasitol. Today 5: 88-95.

Francis, E. & B. Mayne. 1922. Experimental transmission of tularemia by flies of the species Chrysops discalis. U.S. Pub. Hlth. Svc. Bull. 130:

8-16.

Matheson, R. 1950. Medical Entomology. Comstock Publ. Co, Inc. 610 p.

Noireau, F., A. Nzoulani, D. Sinda & A. Itoua. 1990. Transmission indices of Loa loa in the Chaillu Mountains, Congo. Amer. J. Trop. Med.

43: 382-8.

Anthony, D. W. 1962. Tabanids as disease vectors. IN: Biological Transmission of Disease Agents. Acad. Press. pp 93-107.

Service, M. 2008. Medical Entomology For Students. Cambridge Univ. Press. 289 p

Legner, E. F. 1995. Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance. J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59-120.

Legner, E. F. 2000. Biological control of aquatic Diptera. p. 847-870. Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera,

Vol. 1, Science Herald, Budapest. 978 p.

Thomson, M. C., V. Obsomer & J. Kamgno et al. 2004. Mapping the distribution of Loa loa in Cameroon in support of the African Programme

for Onchocerciasis Control. Filaria J. 3: 7.