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Ticks and mites all over the world transmit various typhuses in the bacterial genus Rickettsia. Ticks and mites are generally considered to be the main reservoirs of infection along with rodents and other mammals. In 1946 a febrile disease appeared in parts of New York City, which Huebner et al. (1946), named it "Rickettsialpox" and caused by Rickettsia akari. Mice were found to be reservoir hosts of the rickettsia. Dermanyssus sanguineus Hirst was a vector that originally was described from Egypt in 1914, but Ewing (1923) collected it in 1909 in America.
The cosmopolitan rat mite, Liponyssus bacoti transmits a virus disease to humans and animals. This mite has a very short life cycle that takes only about 12 days (Dove & Shelmire 1931).
Service (2008) reported that transovarial and transstadial transmission can occur in tick vectors. Other important kinds of typhus are discussed separately according to the localities where they occur.
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