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       The parasite of Rhodesian sleeping sickness is Trypanosoma brucci rhodesiense, which produces a more virulent disease than the Gambian type.  Death usually occurs after just a few weeks or months.  But it is not as widespread, being more restricted to Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Mozambique and the area around Lake Victoria in Kenya and Uganda (Service 2008).


       Important vectors are Glossina morsitans, G. pallidipes and G. fuscipes, which draw blood from a variety of game and domestic animals.  The flies occur primarily in wild areas that are not heavily populated by humans.  Reservoir hosts are the many wild bovid animals present (e.g., black buffalo, etc.).


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Key References:     <medvet.ref.htm>    <Hexapoda>


Buxton, P. A.  1955.  The Natural History of Tsetse Flies: an Account of the Biology of the Genus Glossina (Diptera).  London School of Hygiene

      & Trop. Med. Memoir 10, London

Colvin, J. & G. Gibson.  1992.  Host-searching behavior and management of tsetse.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 37:  21-40.

Fevre, E. M., K. Picozzi, J. Jannin, S. C. Welburn & I. Maudlin.  2006.  Human African trypanosomiasis epidemiology and control.  Adv.

     Parasitol. 61:  168-221.

Ford, J.  1971.  The Role of Trypanosomiasis in African Ecology:  a Study of Tsetse Fly Problem.  Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Gooding, R. H. & E. S. Krafsur.  2005.  Tsetse genetics: contributions to the biology, systematics and control of tsetse flies.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 50:


Green, C. H.  1994.  Bait methods for tsetse fly control.  Adv. in Parasitology 34:  229-91.

Jannin, J. & P. Cattand.  2004.  Treatment and control of human African trypanosomiasis.  Current Opinions in Infectious Diseases 17:  565-71.

Jordan, A. M.  1989.  Man and changing patterns of the African trypanosomiasis. IN:  Demography & Vector-Borne Diseases. CRC Press,

     Boca Raton, Fla. p. 47-58.

Jordan, A. M.  1993.  Tsetse-flies (Glossinidae).  IN:  Medical Insects and Arachnids.  Chapman & Hall, London. p. 333-88.

Matheson, R. 1950.  Medical Entomology.  Comstock Publ. Co, Inc.  610 p.

Maudlin, I., P. H. Holmes & M. A. Miles.  2004.  The Trypanosomiases.  CABI, Wallingford, England.

Service, M.  2008.  Medical Entomology For Students.  Cambridge Univ. Press.  289 p

Torr, S. J., J. W. Hargrove & G. A. Vale.  2005.  Towards a rational policy for dealing with tsetse.  Trends in Prasitology 21:  537-41.

Legner, E. F.  1995.  Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance.  J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59_120.

Legner, E. F.  2000.  Biological control of aquatic Diptera.  p. 847_870.  Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera, Vol. 1, Science 

      Herald, Budapest.  978 p.

World Health Organization.  2003.  Report of the Scientific Working Group Meeting on African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness).

      TDR/SWG/01, Geneva.