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[Also see: <Hemiptera Details>]
Originally the Insect Order Hemiptera was divided into two suborders: Heteroptera and Homoptera. Since the latter part of the 20th Century the Homoptera, which are almost wholly plant feeders were elevated to full order status, but their members are of little medical significance. Although the Hemiptera also are plant feeders there are some species that reed on the blood of other insects and can attack animals and humans as well. The main structural characters are two pairs of wings (in most species), with the forewings being thickened at their bases (hemelytra). The hind wings are very thin and have few veins. The mouthparts include a beak that extends from the front part of the head and is jointed. Metamorphosis is gradual, with young individuals appearing as miniature adults.
Hemiptera families or subfamilies of primary medical importance are:
The following key separates the important families that attack humans and animals
by biting and/or vectoring diseases:
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Chinery, M. 1993. Insects of Britain and Northern Europe 3rd ed..
Cohen, Allen C. 1990. Feeding Adaptations of Some Predaceous Hemiptera. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 83 (6): 1215–1223.
Coll, M.; Ruberson, J.R. (eds.) 1998. Predatory Heteroptera: their ecology & use in biological control. CAB Direct Org.
Czarkowska, J. & S. Blank-Weissbeg. 1930. The role of the bedbug (Cimex lectularius) in the transmission of relapsing fever. Warsaw Rev.
Appl. Ent (B): 18.
Daly, H. V., John T. Doyen & Alexander H. Purcell 1998. Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity 2nd ed.. Oxford University Press. pp. 320.
Foltz, J. L. January 23, 2003. "ENY 3005 Families of Hemiptera". University of Florida..
Forero, Dimitri. 2008. The Systematics of Hemiptera. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia. 34(1): 1–21.
Goddard, Jerome. 2009. Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) & clinical Consequences of their bites. JAMA. 301 (13): 1358–1366.
Goddard, J. & R. deShazo. 2009). "Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) and clinical consequences of their bites". J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 301(13): 1358–66
Hagler, J. "Geocoris spp. Heteroptera: Lygaeidae – Bigeyed Bug". In Catherine R. Weeden, Anthony M. Shelton & Michael P.
Matheson, R. 1950. Medical Entomology. Comstock Publ. Co, Inc. 610 p.
Service, M. 2008. Medical Entomology For Students. Cambridge Univ. Press. 289 p
Legner, E. F. 1995. Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance. J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59-120.
Legner, E. F. 2000. Biological control of aquatic Diptera. p. 847-870. Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera,
Vol. 1, Science Herald, Budapest. 978 p.
Reinhardt, Klaus & M. T. Siva-Jothy. 2007. Biology of the bed bugs (Cimicidae). Ann. Rev. Ent. 52: 351–374.
Ruppert, Edward E., R. Fox, S. Richard, & R. D. Barnes. 2004. Invertebrate Zool., 7th edition. Cengage Learning. pp. 728, 748.
Shcherbakov, D. E. 2000. "Permian faunas of Homoptera Hemiptera in relation to phytogeography and the Permo-Triassic crisis" PDF.
Paleontological Journal 34 3: S251–S267
Usinger, W. E. 1944. The Triatominae of North and Central America and the West Indies and their public health significance. U. S. Pub
Hlth. Serv. Bull 288.
Yorke, W. 1937. Chagas' disease: a critical review. Trop. Dis. Bull. 34: 275-300.