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       The parasite of Gambian sleeping sickness is Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.  It occurs from West Africa through Central Africa, parts of the Sudan, Congo and Angola (Service 2008).  Tsetse fly vectors include Glossina palpalis and G. tachinoides and G. fuscipes.  The disease is more or less chronic with mortality after many years of infection.  Wild reservoirs of the trypanosome are wild and domestic pigs.  The tsetse flies that vector Gambian sleeping sickness are very common at watering holes, river fords and along lake shores, which are places often visited by humans.  Therefore, acquisition of the disease is largely limited to those environments.


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Key References:     <medvet.ref.htm>    <Hexapoda>


Buxton, P. A.  1955.  The Natural History of Tsetse Flies: an Account of the Biology of the Genus Glossina (Diptera).  London School of Hygiene

      & Trop. Med. Memoir 10, London

Colvin, J. & G. Gibson.  1992.  Host-searching behavior and management of tsetse.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 37:  21-40.

Fevre, E. M., K. Picozzi, J. Jannin, S. C. Welburn & I. Maudlin.  2006.  Human African trypanosomiasis epidemiology and control.  Adv.

     Parasitol. 61:  168-221.

Ford, J.  1971.  The Role of Trypanosomiasis in African Ecology:  a Study of Tsetse Fly Problem.  Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Gooding, R. H. & E. S. Krafsur.  2005.  Tsetse genetics: contributions to the biology, systematics and control of tsetse flies.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 50:


Green, C. H.  1994.  Bait methods for tsetse fly control.  Adv. in Parasitology 34:  229-91.

Jannin, J. & P. Cattand.  2004.  Treatment and control of human African trypanosomiasis.  Current Opinions in Infectious Diseases 17:  565-71.

Jordan, A. M.  1989.  Man and changing patterns of the African trypanosomiasis. IN:  Demography & Vector-Borne Diseases. CRC Press,

     Boca Raton, Fla. p. 47-58.

Jordan, A. M.  1993.  Tsetse-flies (Glossinidae).  IN:  Medical Insects and Arachnids.  Chapman & Hall, London. p. 333-88.

Matheson, R. 1950.  Medical Entomology.  Comstock Publ. Co, Inc.  610 p.

Maudlin, I., P. H. Holmes & M. A. Miles.  2004.  The Trypanosomiases.  CABI, Wallingford, England.

Service, M.  2008.  Medical Entomology For Students.  Cambridge Univ. Press.  289 p

Torr, S. J., J. W. Hargrove & G. A. Vale.  2005.  Towards a rational policy for dealing with tsetse.  Trends in Prasitology 21:  537-41.

Legner, E. F.  1995.  Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance.  J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59_120.

Legner, E. F.  2000.  Biological control of aquatic Diptera.  p. 847_870.  Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera, Vol. 1, Science 

      Herald, Budapest.  978 p.

World Health Organization.  2003.  Report of the Scientific Working Group Meeting on African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness).

      TDR/SWG/01, Geneva.