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       Various species Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infect dogs, ruminants and humans (Service 2008).  Erlichia chaffensis causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis, while Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia ewingii parasitize granulocytes causing human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (Service 2008).  Hard ticks of genera Amblyomma and Ixodes serve as vectors.  Rodents and deer are believed to be the principal reservoir hosts.  Transstadial transmission has been substantiated.


       The disease occurs widely in Europe, Africa, Venezuela and the United States where Service (2008) reports infections may be on the increase.


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 Key References:     <medvet.ref.htm>    <Hexapoda>


     Matheson, R. 1950.  Medical Entomology.  Comstock Publ. Co, Inc.  610 p.

      Service, M.  2008.  Medical Entomology For Students.  Cambridge Univ. Press.  289 p

      Legner, E. F.  1995.  Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance.  J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59_120.

      Legner, E. F.  2000.  Biological control of aquatic Diptera.  p. 847_870.  Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera,

          Vol. 1, Science  Herald, Budapest.  978 p.