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       A Nairovirus causes this fever, which has been found in many countries of central and southern Europe, the Middle East, Russia, the Indian subcontinent, China, Madagascar and Africa.  It is one of the most widely distributed of all the arboviruses with human infections occurring in over 30 countries (Service 2008).  The disease is especially prevalent in savannah, steppe and semi desert localities.


       Vectors include Hyalomma marginatus marginatum, H. rufipes and other tick species in the same genus.  Tick larvae and nymphs feed on birds and small mammals, while adults draw blood from larger mammals including humans.  Domestic animals are common amplifying hosts and probably also serve as reservoirs for the virus.  Birds become involved when they spread infected ticks over vast areas during migratory flights.


       Infection can occur from a tick bite of by crushing an infected tick and even by contamination from infected blood from a domestic animal.  Ticks serve as virus reservoirs because of their longevity, which can exceed two years.  Venereal transmission occurs when infected tick males mate with females.  This may be followed by transovarial and transstadial transmissions (Service 2008).


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 Key References:     <medvet.ref.htm>    <Hexapoda>


    Matheson, R. 1950.  Medical Entomology.  Comstock Publ. Co, Inc.  610 p.

     Service, M.  2008.  Medical Entomology For Students.  Cambridge Univ. Press.  289 p

     Legner, E. F.  1995.  Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance.  J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59_120.

     Legner, E. F.  2000.  Biological control of aquatic Diptera.  p. 847_870.  Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera,

          Vol. 1, Science  Herald, Budapest.  978 p.