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       A Coltivirus causes this fever, which is found in Western North America from the Dakotas into the Rocky Mountains (Parker et al. 1937).  The main vector is the tick, Dermacentor andersoni. 


       Symptoms of the disease do not involve a rash and the fever is of the remittent type.  It is rarely fatal.


       The nymphs and larvae draw blood from small mammals such as squirrels, rabbits, chipmunks and woodrats.  Both the ticks and small mammals serve as reservoir hosts.  Large mammals, such as humans, deer and cattle become infected if infected ticks also draw blood from them.  Service (2008) notes that both transstadial and transovarial transmission may occur.


Colorado Tick Fever - Life Cycle


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 Key References:     <medvet.ref.htm>    <Hexapoda>    [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library]


Camicas, J. L., J. . Hervy, F. Adam & P. C. Morel.  1998.  The ticks of the world (Acarida, Ixodida):  Nomenclature, Described Stages, Hosts,

     Distribution.  Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.


Francy DB, Moore LG, Smith GC, Jakob WL, Taylor SA, Calisher CH. 1988. Epizootic vesicular stomatitis in Colorado, 1982: Isolation of virus

     from insects collected along the northern Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range. Journal of Medical Entomology 25: 343-347


Gammons, M. & G. Salam.  2002.  Tick removal.  Amer. Fam. Physician 66:  643-45.


Gothe, R., K. Kunze & H. Hoogstraal.  1979.  The mechanisms of pathogenicity in the tick paralyses.  J. Med. Ent. 16:  357-69.


Hoogstraal, H.  1966.  Ticks in relation to human diseases caused by viruses.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 11:  261-308.


Legner, E. F.  1995.  Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance.  J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59_120.


Legner, E. F.  2000.  Biological control of aquatic Diptera.  p. 847_870.  Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera,

          Vol. 1, Science  Herald, Budapest.  978 p.


Matheson, R. 1950.  Medical Entomology.  Comstock Publ. Co, Inc.  610 p.


Needham, G. R. & P. D. Teel.  1991.  Off-host physiological ecology of ixodid ticks.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 36:  313-52.


Parola, P. & D. Raoult.  2001.  Tick-borne typhuses.  IN:  The Encyclopedia of arthropod-transmitted Infections of Man and Domesticated

     Animals. ed. M. W. Service, Wallingford: CABI:  pp. 516-24.


Service, M.  2008.  Medical Entomology For Students.  Cambridge Univ. Press.  289 p


Sonenshine, D. E., R. S. Lane & W. L. Nicholson. 2002.  Ticks (Ixodida).  IN:  Medical & Veterinary Entomology, ed. G. Mullen & L. Durden,

     Ambsterdam Acad. Press.  pp 517-58.


Sonenshine, D. E. & T. N. Mather (eds.)  1994.  Ecological Dynamics of Tick-Borne Zoonoses.  Oxford Univ. Press, New York.


Steer, A., J. Coburn & L. Glickstein.  2005.  Lyme borreliosis.  IN:  Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans, ed. J. L. Goodman, D. T. Dennis & D. E.

     Sonenshine.  Washington, DC: ASM Press.