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This disease was discovered in Texas in 1943 when over 485 cases were isolated from soldiers at Camp Bullis (Matheson 1950). The tick, Amblyomma americanum, was the incriminate vector because all cases had sustained numerous bites from this tick. Also, a virus was isolated from the tick, Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris, found on rabbits, but no conclusions were made if this was the definite causative agent.



Key References: <medvet.ref.htm> <Hexapoda>


Camicas, J. L., J. . Hervy, F. Adam & P. C. Morel. 1998. The ticks of the world (Acarida, Ixodida): Nomenclature, Described Stages, Hosts,

Distribution. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.


Gammons, M. & G. Salam. 2002. Tick removal. Amer. Fam. Physician 66: 643-45.


Gothe, R., K. Kunze & H. Hoogstraal. 1979. The mechanisms of pathogenicity in the tick paralyses. J. Med. Ent. 16: 357-69.


Hoogstraal, H. 1966. Ticks in relation to human diseases caused by viruses. Ann. Rev. Ent. 11: 261-308.


Legner, E. F. 1995. Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance. J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59_120.


Legner, E. F. 2000. Biological control of aquatic Diptera. p. 847_870. Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera,

Vol. 1, Science Herald, Budapest. 978 p.


Matheson, R. 1950. Medical Entomology. Comstock Publ. Co, Inc. 610 p.


Parola, P. & D. Raoult. 2001. Tick-borne typhuses. IN: The Encyclopedia of arthropod-transmitted Infections of Man and Domesticated Animals.

ed. M. W. Service, Wallingford: CABI: pp. 516-24.


Service, M. 2008. Medical Entomology For Students. Cambridge Univ. Press. 289 p


Sonenshine, D. E. & T. N. Mather (eds.) 1994. Ecological Dynamics of Tick-Borne Zoonoses. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.


Steer, A., J. Coburn & L. Glickstein. 2005. Lyme borreliosis. IN: Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans, ed. J. L. Goodman, D. T. Dennis & D. E.

Sonenshine. Washington, DC: ASM Press.