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(Alternate Name = Mediterranean Spotted Fever)



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       Boutonneuse Fever was first discovered in Tunisia by Conor & Bruch (Matheson 1950).  Subsequently, it was also found in the Mediterranean Sea area from Portugal to Romania, and Matheson (1950) noted its occurrence in Ethiopia.  Brumpt (Matheson 1950)) found the causative agent to be the bacterium Rickettsia conorii, and the vector dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus.  Dogs are the most important reservoir hosts along with several rodent species.  Matheson noted that the disease is of the "spotted-fever group."  He also suggested that Kenya Tick Typhus might be the same disease as the vector, R. sanguineus, also occurs there.  There are other names for the disease, and it has leaped the Atlantic Ocean to be found in Uruguay.


       Service (2008) reported that both transstadial and transovarial transmission occurs.  Reservoir hosts include dogs and ticks.  Crushing an infected tick near an abrasion or the eyes can also transmit the Rickettsia.


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 Key References:     <medvet.ref.htm>    <Hexapoda>


Camicas, J. L., J. . Hervy, F. Adam & P. C. Morel.  1998.  The ticks of the world (Acarida, Ixodida):  Nomenclature, Described Stages, Hosts,

     Distribution. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.

Gammons, M. & G. Salam.  2002.  Tick removal.  Amer. Fam. Physician 66:  643-45.

Hoogstraal, H.  1966.  Ticks in relation to human diseases caused by viruses.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 11:  261-308.

Hoogstraal, H.  1967.  Ticks in relation to human diseases caused by Rickettsia species.  Ann. Rev. Ent. 12:  377-420.

Matheson, R. 1950.  Medical Entomology.  Comstock Publ. Co, Inc.  610 p.

Parola, P. & D. Raoult.  2001.  Tick-borne typhuses.  IN:  The Encyclopedia of arthropod-transmitted Infections of Man and Domesticated Animals.

      ed. M. W. Service, Wallingford: CABI:  pp. 516-24.

Service, M.  2008.  Medical Entomology For Students.  Cambridge Univ. Press.  289 p

Legner, E. F.  1995.  Biological control of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance.  J. Vector Ecology 20(1): 59_120.

Legner, E. F.  2000.  Biological control of aquatic Diptera.  p. 847_870.  Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera,

          Vol. 1, Science  Herald, Budapest.  978 p.

Sonenshine, D. E. & T. N. Mather (eds.)  1994.  Ecological Dynamics of Tick-Borne Zoonoses.  Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

Steer, A., J. Coburn & L. Glickstein.  2005.  Lyme borreliosis.  IN:  Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans, ed. J. L. Goodman, D. T. Dennis & D. E.

     Sonenshine.  Washington, DC: ASM Press