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††††††††††††††††† [Note:All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]




A review derived from the following:


Nyland, Edo.2001.Linguistic Archaeology: An
Introduction.†† Trafford Publ., Victoria, B.C., Canada.

ISBN 1-55212-668-4. 541 p.


----Please CLICK on desired underlined categories [to search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:



††††††††† An ancient language form that originated in the North African area of our most ancient civilizations was studied by Nyland (2001).He found that many words used to describe names of places and things in the British Isles seem to be closely related to the ancient language, which Nyland called Saharan, and which later was predated by the Igbo Language of West Africa.Fortuitously, the Basque Language is a close relative to the original Saharan.Following is a discussion of this relationship:For another description of English development, see: "Hidden Meanings in English"




††††††††† Whole sentences in English are often condensed into single words and names, by being encoded with the use of a vowel-interlocking formula (see VCV). About half of the Basque language is made up of words starting with vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV or VCCV) and it is this half, which has been used to produce English vocabulary, the same as was done for Sanskrit and Latin (see VCV Formula). This formula, which was recently discussed by Nyland (2001) used the first vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) of every Saharan/Basque word, which then were aligned as VCV1-V1CV2-V2CV3 and agglutinated into VCVCVCV. Many vowels and some "h's" of the resulting agglutination were then removed according to a pre-determined plan, to create English-looking or English-sounding words. The main assigned characteristic of the English language is that the traditional Latin pronunciation of the letters was abandoned and replaced by a different alphabet pronunciation. In the following examples the removed letters are shown as dots. Sometimes both vowels were eliminated from one VCV but the consonants (except some "h's") always remained. To read up on the decoding process and the vowel-interlocking feature, please see the VCV Formula. The language used to translate the names and words, as before, is Basque.


††††††††† Many of the words in the English language were made up by the Benedictines and grammarians in their scriptoria, some later evolved from the words these linguists invented. The clergy did the word construction mostly by writing a short sentence describing the subject in Basque. In some cases they used wisecracks or jokes, even crude remarks and personal feelings. They also borrowed and exchanged words made up by linguists in France, Holland, Germany and Italy, often altering the available words to give them an "English" touch, e.g. French 'famille' became 'family'. Latin was invented in exactly the same manner, using the same rules as for English, as the name "Latin" indicates: .la-ati-in or ela-ati-indar: ela (word) atxiki (to memorize) indaregin (make an effort): "make an effort to memorize the words". To introduce the new subject of English word translations, here follow a few which clearly demonstrate the care, creativity and often joy, which went into composing them.


.do††††††††††† odo†††††††††† odoldun†† ††††††††††††††††  bloody
ok.††††††††††† oke†††††††††† okerkeria  injury
.to†††††††††††† eto††††††††††† etorri ††††††††††††††††††††††† come!
or.†††††††††††† ora†††††††††† orain†††††††††††††††††††††††† right now
A bloody injury, come right now!
.pa††††††††††† apa†††††††††† aparteko†† ††††††††††††††† special 
ar.†††††††††††† -ari†††††††††† -ari†††††††††† ††††††††††††††††  cause
.li††††††††††††† ili††††††††††††† ilinti††††††††††††††††††††††††  fiery
i.a†††††††††††† iha††††††††††† ihardukitze†††††††††††† arguing, oratory
ame††††††††† ame††††††††† ameslari†† ††††††††††††††† idealistic
ent.†††††††††† ent††††††††††† entzungarri†††††††††††††  worthy of being heard
Fiery and idealistic oratory for a special cause is worthy of being heard.
.ha††††††††††† aha†††††††††† ahalegin†††††††††††††††† attempt
an.††††††††††† ane†††††††††† anega †††††††††††††††††††††† ††measure
.sa††††††††††† esa†††††††††† esan††††††††† †††††††††††††††† †† to narrate
ard.†††††††††† ardu†††††††† arduratu†††††††††††††††† to take responsibility for
An attempt to take a measure of responsibility for the narration.
library: .li-ib.-.ra-ari
.li††††††††††††† eli†††††††††††† elizdiru††† †††††††††††††††††† religious duty
ib.†††††††††††† ibi†††††††††††† ibili††††††††† †††††††††††††††† ††† to acquire
.ra†††††††††††† ira††††††††††† irakaskuntza††††††††††† †† education
ari†††††††††††† ari††††††††††† arrigarri†† †††††††††††††††††† marvellous, admirable
It is your religious duty to acquire a marvelous education.
irrigate: ir.-.ri-iga-ate
ir.††††††††††††† ire††††††††††† ireki††††††††††††††††††††††††† to open
.ri††††††††††††† eri††††††††††† eriontegi††††††††††††††† spillway
iga††††††††††† iga††††††††††† igartu†††††††††††††††††††††††  to wilt
ate††††††††††† ate††††††††††† atertu†††††† †††††††††††††††† †† to stop
Open the spillway to stop the wilting.
alcohol: al.-.ko-oho-ol.
al.†††††††††††† alu††††††††††† alukeria ††††††††††††††repulsive behaviour
.ko††††††††††† uko†††††††††† ukoegin†††††††††††††††††††  to deny
oho†††††††††† oho†††††††††† ohoregabe†††† ††††††††††† to dishonor
ol.†††††††††††† ol††††††††††††† olde††††††††† †††††††††††††††† free will
Denying and repulsive behaviour dishonors the free will.
.ga††††††††††† ega†††††††††† egakortasun†††††††††††† volatility, smell
ar.†††††††††††† ara†††††††††† arranguratu†††††††††††† †† to complain
.li††††††††††††† ali†††††††††††† alienatu†† ††††††††††††††††† destroys a person's composure
ik.†††††††††††† ika††††††††††† ikaragarri†††††††††††††††† ††† awful!
(People) complain that the smell destroys a person's composure. It's awful!
existence: (eksiztense)
.ek††††††††††† eka†††††††††† ekarpen †† †††††††††††††††††††contribution
.si†††††††††††† asi††††††††††† asierako†† ††††††††††††††††† original
iste†††††††††† izte†††††††††† iztegi††††††† †††††††††††††††† †† vocabulary
ene†††††††††† ene†††††††††† ene†††††††††† †††††††††††††††† †††† my
.se††††††††††† ese†††††††††† esentia††††††††††††††††††††† †† essence 
"The essence of my original vocabulary contributions".




†††††††† Nyland then decided to be adventurous and apply his newfound knowledge about the mysterious vowel-interlocking formula to some names associated with the British royal family. The choice of the name "Windsor" was straight luck; the result was startling. There appears to be no other reasonable interpretation.


Windsor:†† (The W has no meaning)
in.†† ino††††††††††† inorenganatu††††††††††  to bequeath
.d.†† odo†††††††††† odolgarbitasun†††††††† nobility
.sooso†††††††††† osoro†††††††††††††††††††††††† thorough
or.†† oro†††††††††† orotar††††††††††††††††††††††† united
Bequeath a thoroughly united nobility.

††††††††† The British royal family took on the name Windsor early in this century. It is fair to say that they must have known exactly what they were doing. The family has long been involved with the pre-history and Ogam script of Scotland. Queen Victoria herself financed the publishing of a voluminous book on very early Scottish inscriptions, entitled "The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland" (J.R. Allen & J. Anderson), many of which were not Christian at all but belonged to the previous Ashera Religion of the Picts. Edo Nyland decided to probe a bit deeper by analyzing other names associated with British royalty:


Buckingham: .bu-uki-ing.-.ha-am.
.buabu†††††††††† aburukide†††††††††††††††† agreement
ukiuki††††††††††† ukitu††††††††††††††††††††††††  to touch, to affect
ing.ingi††††††††††† ingira†††††††††††††††††††††††  disposition, formation
.haiha††††††††††† ihardunak †††††††††††††† activities
am. ami†††††††††† aministratu††††††††††††† government
The agreement affects the formation and activities of the government.
This "agreement" probably refers to the signing of Magna Carta. 
.baeba†††††††††† ebanjelari†††††††††††††††† evangelist
al.†† ala††††††††††† alai†††††††††††††††††††††††††† happiness
.moamo†††††††††† amodiotsu†††††††††††††††† loving
oraora†††††††††† oraingoan ††††††††††††††† occasion
al.†† ala††††††††††† alaitsu††††† †††††††††††††††† joyous
The evangelist's happiness made this a loving and joyous occasion.
.kaaka†††††††††† akabu ††††† †††††††††††††††† end
ar.†† ara†††††††††† aratustel†††††††††††††††††† corruption
.naana†††††††††† anaibateko†††††††††††††† unanimous
ar.†† ara†††††††††† araberatasun††††††††††† agreement
.boabo†††††††††† abonau†††† ††††††††††††††††  to approve of†††††††††† onetsi†††††† †††††††††††††††† to bless
Corruption was ended when the unanimous approval of the agreement was blessed.
This is another sentence which refers to Magna Carta. 
.keike††††††††††† ikertu†††††††††††††††††††††††  to investigate, to re-visit
en.ene†††††††††† -enetan ††††††††††††††††††† each time
.si†† esi††††††††††† esiketa††††† ††††††††††††††††  siege
ing.ingi††††††††††† ingiratu††††††††††††††††††† to be disgusted
.to†† ito†††††††††††† itotasun††††††††††††††††††† anguish
on.ona†††††††††† onargaitz††††††††††††††††† intolerable
Each time they re-visit that repugnant siege (it causes) intolerable anguish.




††††††††† The above unexpected success in the search for the origin of English names was encouraging so other well known and true English names were analyzed as follows:


os.osa†††††††††† osatasun†††††††††††††††††† integrity
.boabo†††††††††† abogado†† †††††††††††††††† lawyer
or.†† oro†††††††††† orokorki††††††††††††††††††† universally
.neone†††††††††† onetsi†††††† †††††††††††††††† esteemed
The integrity of a lawyer is universally esteemed.
Sebastian: .se-eba-asti-an.
.sease†††††††††† aserre†††††††††††††††††††††††  dispute
eba eba†††††††††† ebazle†††††† †††††††††††††††† judge
asti azti†††††††††† aztiatu †††††††††††††††††††† to anticipate
an.ana†††††††††† anaitze†††† †††††††††††††††† reconciliation
Dispute judge who anticipates reconciliation.
Buchanan: .bu-uka-ana-an.
.buabu†††††††††† aburu ††††† †††††††††††††††† opinion
ukauka†††††††††† ukatu †††††††††††††††††††††† to refuse
ana ana†††††††††† anaikidetasun †††††††† brotherhood
an†† andi††††††††† andikeria arrogance
He refused to give an opinion about the arrogance of the brotherhood.
.haaha†††††††††† ahal††††††††††††††††††††††††† I hope
ami ami†††††††††† amildu†††† †††††††††††††††† to oust, to overcome
il.††† ilo†††††††††††† ilordu †††††††††††††††††††††† ††agony
.to†† oto††††††††††† otoitz ††††††††††††††††††††††† prayer†††††††††† oneratsu†††††††††††††††††† pious
I hope to overcome the agony through pious prayer.

††††††††† One of the best-known sea captains of the age of exploration was Henry Hudson. From the meaning of his name it appears that he acquired the name Hudson during or after one of his arctic voyages. Hudson Bay and the Hudson River were named after him.


.huuhu†††††††††† uhui††††††††††††††††††††††††† cry of happiness, joy
ud.udi††††††††††† udikan†††††††††††††††††††††  to get out
.soiso††††††††††† isolamendu†††††††††††††† isolation
on.ona†††††††††† onargaitz††††††††††††††††† intolerable, hostile
He cried for joy to get out of the hostile isolation.
og.oga†††††††††† ogaki†††††††††††††††††††††††† richly
.deade†††††††††† adelatu†††† †††††††††††††††† adorned
en.ene†††††††††† -enetan††††††††††††††††††††  always
Always richly adorned.
.puipu††††††††††† ipuin††††††† ††††††††††††††††  gospel
ur.†† uri††††††††††† urrikaltasun ††††††††††† mercy
.bi†† ibi†††††††††††† ibili††††††††††††††††††††††††††  to be
is.†† isu††††††††††† isurika††††††††††††††††††††† inspiration
Let the Gospel's mercy be an inspiration.
.moamo†††††††††† amona††††† †††††††††††††††† grandmother
ol.†† ole††††††††††† oles egin††††††††††††††††††  to call upon
.soeso†††††††††† esonde††††† †††††††††††††††† advice
on.onu†††††††††† onuts††††††† †††††††††††††††† very kind
Call upon grandmother for very kind advice.
.gi†† agi††††††††††† agian††††††††††††††††††††††† I wish
ib.†† ibe††††††††††† ibeni†††††††† †††††††††††††††† to introduce, to give
.soeso†††††††††† esonde††††† †††††††††††††††† advice†††††††††† oneratu††† ††††††††††††††††  beneficial
I wish to give beneficial advice.
.koako†††††††††† akorduan euki††††††††† to remember
om.ome†††††††††† omendatu to honor
.p.†† epe†††††††††† epemuga††††††††††††††††  deadline
.to†† eto††††††††††† etorkizuneko††††††††††† upcoming†††††††††† ondar†††††† ††††††††††††††††  final
Remember to honor the upcoming final deadline.
.koako†††††††††† akorduan euki††††††††† to remember
oli†† oli†††††††††††† olibolio†††††††††††††††††††† olive oil
i.e†† ihe††††††††††† ihesi††††††††††††††††††††††††† to prevent
er.†† eri††††††††††† eri††††††††††††††††††††††††††††  illness
Remember that olive oil prevents illness.

††††††††† A geographical name that became a household name is Trafalgar, where Nelson fought the sea-battle of 1805 and defeated Napoleon's fleet. The name must have been made up specifically for this occasion:


Trafalgar: .t.-.ra-afa-alga-ar.
.t.††† ate††††††††††† atertu†††††††††††††††††††††††  to stop
.ra†† era†††††††††† erasan††††† †††††††††††††††† attack
afaafa††††††††††† afa†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† happy
alga†††††††††††††††† algara†††††††††††††††††††††† loud laughter
ar.†† ari††††††††††† arinaldi††††††††††††††††††† fast run
We stopped the attack (amid) happy and loud laughter when they ran away fast.

††††††††† It can be shown that many British names are made up out of Basque, although not all were assembled with the Ogam formula, such as "Campbell," from kam-bel: kamaina (improvised bed) bela (sails): "They slept on sails"; or "Stewart," from stu-art.: asturu (fortune) arti (sheep): "A fortune in sheep." The linguists who created most of these names were dedicated professionals of the highest caliber and they did a marvelous job. Who they were and where they worked will be discussed in another web-page. For now it is more important to show how basic the Basque language is to all aspects of English; it may be said that the English language is close to 100% manipulated Basque. By now the reader will have understood that there is nothing "genetic" about the English language. It didn't evolve naturally from any other language; it was almost totally home-invented and had absolutely nothing to do with the Anglo-Saxons, Friesians, Celts, Vikings or whatever ruffians happened to drift in from the continent.





††††††††† In "Love's Labour's Lost" Shakespeare presents us with a Latin sounding riddle: honorificabilitudinitatibus (Act V, i, 39). Up to now it has frustrated all efforts to decode it. This is supposed to be the longest "Latin" word in the dictionary, but from where did this "Latin" word come? Probably not from Latin! The fact that he used this word suggests that he knew about the Benedictines' operational manual, the "Auraicept na n'Eces" in which it is mentioned at least twice. It is likely that the "word" was made up in Ireland by one of the Benedictine grammarians. In line 1438 the word starts with tinerifica while the version in line 1741 is tenerifica. Let us first apply the Ogam formula to Shakespeare's version and see what happens:


.hoahogoza†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† delicious
ono onon †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† exquisite
ori†† orrits††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† banquet
ifi††† ibili††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† to go
ikaikaskai†††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† lesson
abiabiatu††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† to begin
ili††† ilinti††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† fiery preacher
itu†† itundu††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† to be advised
udiudikan ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† to get out, to go away
ini†† initz,ainitz†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† many
ita†† itaun††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† question
ati†† atxiki†††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† to retain
ibuaburu?†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† opinion
us.usutu†††††† †††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††† often expressed
†††† Going to the delicious and exquisite banquet was the lesson the fiery preacher began with. I was advised to go away with my 
many questions and retained my often expressed opinion. 

††††††††† The 800 or 900 year older version in the Auraicept has two slightly different spellings and translations: (line 1741), starting with  .te-ene-eri-ifi-ika: ateots (knock on the door) ene (come to me) eritasun (heavily laden) which therefore reads: "Knock on the door, come to me those who are heavily laden; this was the lesson...etc.". Version line 1438 reads: .ti-ine-eri-ifi-ika: atikitzaile (faithful) inertzia (downtrodden) eritasun (heavily laden) and therefore reads: "faithful but downtrodden and heavily laden; this was the lesson....etc."


††††††††† This made me wonder if there was anything special hidden in Shakespeare's name and there was:


Shakespeare, she-ek.-.spi-ir. (pron: shay-ayk-spee-eer)
she she†††††††††† shedatu††††††††††††††††††††  to decide
ek.eka†††††††††† ekandu †††††††††††††††††††† to get used to
.spi azpi††††††††† azpiko†††††††††††††††††††††† protective cover, pseudonym
ir.††† ira††††††††††† irakatsi†††††††††††††††††††† to teach
(ir.)(ira)†††††††††† (irauli?)††††††††††††††††††† (to translate)?
††††††††† I decided to get used to teaching (translating?) under a pseudonym.


††††††††† The reason why none of the six known signatures of the great man were spelled the same must be because the basic sounds of "she-ek-spi-ir" were more important than the accurate spelling of his English "name."





††††††††† Many common English words are found to belong to the pre-Christian language. Most of them were preserved with only minor change in meaning:


†††††††††††††††† English: †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Derived from:
acid†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† azido (acid)
ankle††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† anka (foot)
better††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† beterik (full)
boss††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† boz (voice)
bulk††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† bulka (to force, to push)
busy††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† bizi(to make a living)
camp†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† canpo (outdoors)
cane††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ka'in (diviner's rod) 
celebrity†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† shelebre (funny)
chisel††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† zizel (chisel)
coy††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† -koi (tendency, trait of character) (suffix)
damn†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† damu (remorse)
fault††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† falta (error)
fleet††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† flota (flotilla)
gate††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† gate (chain)
goose††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† guztien (common) 
gory††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† gorri (terrible)
to guide†††††††††††††††† gidatu (to guide)
harpoon††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† arpo (harpoon)
honest†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† oneste (act of blessing)
hurry†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† hurre (come closer)
impression††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† inpresio (impression)
to inaugurate††††††††††††††††††††††††† inauguratu (to inaugurate)
innocent††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† inuzente (stupid)
kitsch††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† kitz (agitated)
to lag††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† laga (to leave behind)
licking†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† likin (sticky)
mad†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† madarikatu (to curse, to swear),
man†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† manatu (giving orders, to decide)
market††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† merkatu (market)
mask†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† maskara (mask)
moron†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† morroin (servant)
nigger†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† nigar (crying)†††††††††† 
ok†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† oka (plentiful, enough)
pan††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† panin (water, clean) 
pauze††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† pauza (pauze)
perch††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† pertxa (perch)
pirate†††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††† pairatu (to suffer)
posh††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† panposha (gracious, charming) 
purge††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† purga (to purge)
quay††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† kai (dock, pier)
race (people)††††††††††††††††††††††††† arraz (race)
raw††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† arau (discipline)†††††† 
to risk†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† arrisku (to risk)
to root†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† errotu (to take root)
sack, satchel††††††††††††††††††††††††† sakela (pocket)
sail††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† zail (difficult)
scratch††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† karrask (scrape)
sense††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† zentzu (common sense)
shallop††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† txalupa (launch, small boat)
sole†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† zola (sole of shoe)
soppy††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† sopi (soaking)
star†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† izar (star)
sudden††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† sudun (ardent, heated)
thorough†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† osoro (thorough)
usual†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† usu (usual)
to use††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† usatu (to use)
word††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ord (ainbide) (promise)



††††††††† English etymological dictionaries generally do not recognize language creation efforts of the Benedictine linguists, later continued by famous writers such as Chaucer, Shakespeare and Tyndale. In fact, most of the modern word etymologies in our dictionaries appear to be guesswork or dreaming. The problem is that none of the languages which are presently assumed part of the Indo-European language "family" are genetically related, i.e. not one of them evolved slowly over time from another. They were all invented by early linguists and forced onto a reluctant public by a determined and occasionally cruel church leadership.




††††††††† In Nylandís English Dictionary he shows how agglutinating the first syllables of Basque words, mostly with the vowel-interlocking formula, formulaically assembled a large number of English words.


††††††††† In other sections, Nyland has shown that the same group of clergy who had earlier manipulated English and Gaelic also influenced Dutch and German. English words, originating at Benedictine scriptoria in Holland and Germany, are discussed in the section on those languages.


††††††††† To understand how the decoding and translating process works, the reader should be familiar with the Ogam section. There is little guesswork in these translations even though, to the uninitiated and casual observer, the process of building up a full word from one consonant appears impossible. The vowel-interlocking feature of the VCV vowel-interlocking formula is responsible for that.However, repeated trials are required for it to be understood. It also requires common sense interpretation.




††† ††