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                  [Note:  All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]




A review derived from the following:


Nyland, Edo.  2001.  Linguistic Archaeology: An
Introduction.   Trafford Publ., Victoria, B.C., Canada.

ISBN 1-55212-668-4. 541 p.



----Please CLICK on underlined categories for detail [to search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:






         After having tested many "Indo-European" languages and reported on the results in these pages, several readers have asked me to do the same with Sanskrit, which is said to be the oldest of them all. It was a lucky choice that the first word tried, niire (water), was clearly assembled with Basque words in the VCV manner:


ni - ire
ni - irensle
            I - to swallow, to drink
I drink.


         This made good sense.  It was done in the same manner in which Latin, Greek, English etc. vocabulary was composed. However, Sanskrit vocabulary turned out to be not quite as easy to decode as the European languages. There may be two reasons for that: 1) because the early Saharan language, used by the Brahmin priests to construct the words, was somewhat different from the modern Basque language used by the Benedictine monks one millennium later, and 2) there was a local language in use (Dravidian) which contributed local words to the newly invented Sanskrit. Both reasons probably have something to do with those Sanskrit words that are difficult to decode. An interesting observation is that in the word-invention process, often only the VCV half of the Saharan/Basque vocabulary was used which begins with vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV). The first three letters of the selected Saharan words were inserted into the VCV vowel-interlocking formula, after which many of the vowels were removed, especially the first, to create the final word. In the above example the vowels match, but vowel interlocking was not used; instead both 'i's were retained.


Example: Punjab

.pu - un. - .ja - ab.
ipu - uni - ija - abe
ipuinezko - unibertsal - iaio - abegion
legendary - universal - cheerful - hospitality
"Our cheerful hospitality is legendary and universal".


Or: Kashmir:

.ka - ash. - .mi - ir.
ika - axo - omi - ira
ikasbide - axoladun - omia santu - irakitu
teachings - caring - holy - fired with passion
"Our teachings are caring, holy and fired with passion". 


Or Taxila, the oldest university:

.ta - ak. - .si - ila
ata - aka - asi - ila
ataurre - akatsbako - asi - ilarteko
introduction - perfect - to begin - lifetime
"Perfect introduction to begin a lifetime".


          When the British arrived in India they continued this system of naming e.g: India:


in. - .di - ia
ina - adi - ia
inarroskatu - adiskidegarri - iaio
to excite - friendly - cheerful
"Exciting, friendly and cheerful".


          The oldest documents in Indo-Aryan writing are thought to be the "Vedic" texts, reputedly composed and memorized in the Sanskrit language in about the latter half of the second millennium B.C., but not written down until ca 500 B.C. In these texts the Sanskrit language is called "samskrta" which obviously is an agglutinated name with several vowels removed. These missing vowels are shown here as dots and arranged according to the VCV formula: .sa-am.-.s.-.k.-.r.-.ta. Using a more systematic form of notation from that shown above (because of the length of some of the words), the meaning therefore decodes as:


.sa    esa    esaldi          language
am.    ama   
amaitu          to destroy
.s.    asa   
asaba           ancestor
ako    akordiotu       to agree
.r.  ora   
oraingoera      renewal, modernization
.ta    ata   
ataurre         to introduce

"Destroy the language of our ancestors by agreeing to introduce renewal"


          If all the vowels were re-inserted into Samskrta, the name would read: Asamasakorata which shows that the person who invented the name Sanskrit guessed wrong when he inserted an "i"; the Samskrta language could more accurately be spelled "Samskrat". The words "language of our ancestors" mentioned in the above translation must therefore have referred to the Universal language mentioned in the Bible. If the above analysis is correct, then virtually all, or at least a good part of the Samskrta language, must have been invented. Using the same VCV formula to test a large number of Sanskrit words can prove this invention theory.


          Let us start with a few of the most common words and immediately we see that we are dealing with a patriarchal society in which the women were assigned to the home and had to behave as the men dictated, or else.


abizarika (housewife): abi-iza-ari-ika,
abi      abi        
abia        nest, home
iza      iza        
izan        to be
ari      ari        
ari         her
ika      ika     
  ikaskari    assignment, task
"The home is her assignment."


bharya (wife): .b.-.ha-ari-i.a,
.b.      abi        
abia        nest, home
.ha      iha      
  ihardun     to spend time
ari      ari      
  ari izan    to be busy
i.a      ia      
   iaio        cheerful
"She spends (her) time in the home, is busy and cheerful."


brahmin,  .b.-.ra-ah.-.mi-in.
ebe          ebertar    patriarch
.ra      era         
eraspen    devotion
aha          ahalguzti  almighty        
.mi      ami         
amildu     to oust
in.      ine         
inertzia   passiveness
"The devoted patriarch of the Almighty will oust passiveness".


duhitr (daughter): .du-uhi-it.-.r.:
.du      adu     
   adurajausi  charming
uhi      uhi      
  uhintsu     wavy, curley
.t.      ito     
   itoaldi     disgrace
.r.      ora     
   oraingoz    sometimes
"Charming curls but sometimes a disgrace".


manus (man): man-us.
man        man      
  manatu      to give orders
us.   usa      
  usaiako     habitually, by nature
"It's his nature to give orders".


nara (man): .na-ara,
.na        ona        
onartu      to welcome
ara     ara        
aragiztatu  to become a man
"He welcomes becoming a man."


pati (master, husband): .pa-ati,
.pa        opa        
opa izan    to desire
ati     ati        
atxikitasun faithfulness
"(He) desires faithfulness."


pitr or pitar (father): pi-ita-ar.:
pi         pi      
   pindartu    to get angry
ita        ita     
   itaun egin  to demand
ar.        ara     
   arau        discipline
"When angered he demands discipline".


putra (son): .pu-ut.-.ra,
.pu        ipu     
   ipurterre   impatient
ut.      uti      
  utikan      to go, to get away
.ra      ira         
irabazi     to grow up
"Impatient to grow up and to get away".


vipra (Brahmin): .bi-ip.-.ra,
.bi        ibi        
ibili       to be
ip.  ipu    
ipurgarbitu to adulate, to venerate
.ra        ura        
ura         he
"(He is) to be venerated."



De Basaldua Noted a Relationship Between Sanskrit and Basque.


          Florencio Canut de Basaldua in his book "Historia de la Civilizacion Indigena de Amerika" (1925) showed that Samskrta words had a relationship with Basque (pages 52-70). However, he recognized only complete Basque words, did not stick closely to the Samskrta spelling and did not reduce the Samskrta words to their VCV roots. Here follow a few of the words he explained with Basque:


          ABARADHA (adultery) he translated as: abar (branch) ramera (whore) probably referring to a beating of the woman. However, a more convincing translation is obtained by using the VCV formula:


abaradha (adultery): aba-ara-ad.-.ha
aba      aba      
  abagadune      on occasion
ara       ara      
  aragiztatu     to be lustful
ad.    ada      
  adarra sartu   to deceive
.ha     aha      
  ahalkegarri    shamefully
"To be lustful on occasion is to deceive shamefully".


          ABAROHA  (hanging branch) he translated as: abar-oha, abar (branch) oha (finish) but a better translation is obtained with the VCV formula:


abaroha (hanging branch): aba-aro-oha
aba        aba        
abar           branch
aro     aro        
arotu          to break off       
oha     oha      
  ohar           caution, advice
"Caution, break off that branch".


ABIJANA (family) he translated as: abia-gana, abia (nest, home) gana (movement towards); not bad, but now try:


abijana (family): abi-ija-ana
abi     abi      
  abia           nest, home
ija     ia        
iaio           happy, cheerful
ana     ana      
  anaitu         to get together
"Happy to get together in the home".


          ABIRA (pastor) which de Basaldua translated as  'rebaņo vacuno' (flock bovine) coming from Basque: abere (beast) idizko (bovine), which is neither flattering nor close. Now try it the VCV way:


abira (pastor): abi-ira,
abi     abi      
  abil           talented
ira     ira        
irakasle       teacher
'Talented teacher".


          ABYADANA (beginning of something), which he explained as adia-dana, adia (intelligence) and dana (all); he was way off the mark this time:


abyadana (beginning of something): abi-ija-ada-ana
abi      abi        
abiatu         to begin
ia       ia          
iaio           happy
ada      ada        
-ada           noisy
ana     ana     
 anaitu         to gather, get together
"A happy beginning to a noisy gathering".


          Florencio de Basaldua gives several more such examples, which show that he was aiming in the right direction, but did not realize that Samskrta was a formulaically composed language. However, as he was probably the first one to point out a close relationship between Basque and Samskrta, he deserves some credit. To prove the VCV theory of Nyland (2001), it is necessary to list some randomly chosen Samskrta words and show the manner in which these words were agglutinated.


Some Sanskrit words and their derivation from Basque.


abidarma (metaphysica):,
abi        abi        
abil           skillful
ida        ida        
idatzi         to write
aru         arrunt         simple
.ma      uma      
  umaketa        procreation
"Skillfull writing about simple procreation".


abita (secure, without fear): abi-ita,
abi     abi        
abia           nest, home
ita    ita    
  itxaro         to trust, have faith in
"Have faith in your home".


aįita (food, meal): asi-ita,
asi     asi        
asiki          bite to eat
ita     ita        
itaundu        to ask
"Ask for a bite to eat".


adyayana (study): adi-ia-aja-ana,
adi        adi      
  adi            attentive
ia    ia    
   iaio           dexterous, mentally adroit
aja        aja      
  ajaja          happy
ana     ana        
anaia          religious brother
"Be attentive and mentally adroit with the happy religious brother.


adyopatya  (Lordship), adi-io-opa-ati-ia
ad.        adi        
adiera         hearing
io         io      
   iortziri       thunder
opa        opa       
 opari          offering
ati        ati        
atiki          to be faithful to
ia         ia          iaio            cheerful
Upon hearing the thunder, offer faithfully and cheerfully.


agnis (fire):
ag.    aga   
     agakatu        to hit, to strike
.ni      ani   
     anitzetan      often
is.    isa      
  izar           star, spark
"Strike often (to get) sparks".


ajras (field): aj.-.ra-as.
aj.  ajo      
  ajola izan     to take care
.ra  ora      
  oraintxe       right now
as.   ase      
  asetasun       abundance
"Right now take care of the abundance".


anala (fire, hearth): ana-ala,
ana     ana      
  anaitu         to get together
ala     ala        
alaitu         to fill with joy
"Getting together fills us with joy".


analena (by the fire), ana-ale-ena,
ana     ana        
anaitu         to get together
ale     ale      
  alegeratu      to be happy
ena     ena      
  -ena           (superlative) very
"Very happy to be together.'


anila (wind): ani-ila,
ani        ani        
anitzetan      often
ila        ila        
ilaundu        to destroy
"Often destructive".


anityam (temporary): ani-iti-ia-am.,
ani        ani        
anitz          many
iti        iti         
itxi           to close up
ia         ia      
   iardun         to spend time
am.        ama  
      amabostaldi    two weeks
"Many close up to spend 2 weeks time." (holidays?)


aniyamita (irregular): ani-ija-ami-ita,
ani        ani      
  anitz          many
ija        iha      
  ihabali        frightened
ami        ami        
aministrator   administrator
ita        ita      
  itaunketa      interrogation
"Many are frightened of the administrator's interrogation".


anugraha (grace, favour): anu-ug.-.ra-aha,
anu        anu     
   anu egin       to faint
ug.        uga        
ugaru          bountiful
.ra        ara      
  aratz          pure
aha        aha        
ahalguzti      almighty
"To (feel) faint (before) the bountiful and pure Almightly."


dahati (to burn): .da-aha-ati,
.da        ada         
adarki         firewood
aha    aha         
ahala          as much as possible
ati         ati        
atxiki         to grab, to gather
"Gather as much firewood as possible".


giris (mountain): .gi-iri-is.:
.gi         egi       
egilaz         summit
iri         iri        
iritsi         to reach
is.        isu        
izugaitz       daring
"It is daring to reach the summit".


khadati, (to eat): .k.-.ha-ada-ati,
.k.        eki         
ekin           to keep on
.ha        iha         
ihaurri        in abundance
ada        ada         
adarki         firewood
ati        ati         
atxiki         to gather
"Keep on gathering firewood in abundance."


kiirtii (fame): .ki-ir.-.ti-i
.ki        aki        
akigarri       aged
ir.        ira        
irakasle       teacher
.ti        ati      
  atiki          faithful
"Aged faithful teacher."


kumaarah (boy, adolescent): .ku-uma-ara-ah.,
.ku        aku        
akuilatu       to stimulate       
uma       uma        
uma            child        
ara        ara        
aragikoitasun  sexual desire
ah.        aho        
ahopean        secretly
"The child stimulates his sexual desire secretly".


kumaarikaa (girl): .ku-uma-ari-ika-aha,
.ku        aku        
akuilatu       to stimulate
uma        uma        
uma            child
ari        ari        
ari            to her, her
ika        ika      
  ikasi          to learn
a.a        aha        
ahalegin       attempt, trial
"The (boy?) child stimulates her in a learning attempt."


kumara (prince): .ku-uma-ara,
.ku    iku        
ikusgarriki    visibly, obviously
uma        uma        
umaldi         birth
ara        ara        
aratz          pure
"Obviously of pure birth."


kutsya (despicable):,
.ku        uku        
ukurtzaile     perverter
ut.        uti      
  utikan         go away        
.si        isi      
  isilume        bastard
i.a        iha        
iharduko       to argue, to talk fast
Perverter go away, you fast talking bastard."


nagara (city, town): .na-aga-ara,
.na        ana         
anaitu         to gather
aga        aga         
-aga           abundance
ara        ara         
arraginlan     masonry
"They gather in an abundance of masonry."


niire (water): ni-ire
ni         ni       
  ni             I
ire   ire 
  irensle        to swallow, to gulp, to drink
"I drink".


punar (again): .pu-una-ar.,
.pu        ipu      
  ipuin          story
una        una      
  unagarri       annoying
ara         arrakor        repetitious
"Annoying repetitious story."


putra (son): .pu-ut.-.ra,
.pu        ipu         
ipurterre      impatient
ut.   uti         
utikan         to go away, to leave home
.ra        ira         
irabazi        to grow up
"Impatient to grow up and leave home."


rohati (to grow): .ro-oha-ati,
.ro        uro         
uroditu        to irrigate
oha        oha         
ohartu         to take care
ati        ati        
atxikigarri    faithfull
"Take care to irrigate faithfully."


sukha (happiness): .su-uk.-.ha,
.su        asu        
asuri          newborn lamb
uki         ukitu          to touch
.ha        iha        
ihaio          cheerful, happy
"Happiness is touching a newborn lamb."



Sanskrit is an Invented Language


          These above examples show that the Sanskrit words examined were composed with the use of the Saharan/Basque vocabulary. Almost all these Sanskrit words were manufactured from the VCV half of the Basque Language. Only if the right word were not available, such as in pitar (father) or manus (man), would they go to the CV half of the vocabulary, just as was done in English. The people who made up this language used exactly the same technique as those who invented the Greek language. Nyland (2001) believed that most probably, they were missionary scholars sent out by the Proto-Judaic religion from Anatolia.