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     [Note:  All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]




A review derived from the following:


Nyland, Edo.  2001.  Linguistic Archaeology: An
Introduction.   Trafford Publ., Victoria, B.C., Canada.

ISBN 1-55212-668-4. 541 p.


----Please CLICK on desired underlined categories [to search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:







          An ancient language form that originated in the West African area of our most ancient civilizations has been studied by Nyland (2001).  He found that many words used to describe names of places and things in Latin seem to be closely related to the ancient language, which Nyland called Saharan, and which later was predated by the Igbo Language of West Africa.  Fortuitously, the Basque Language is a close relative to the original Saharan.  Following is a discussion of this relationship:


          It is generally believed that Basque is primarily a borrowed and distorted Latin. The following examination of the words does not bear this out. Instead, it is clear from the following decoding of words that Latin is almost totally formulaically manipulated Basque, which stands to reason because Basque is a far older language (see Old Egyptian & Nyland (2001)).


          Latin endings (e.g. -us, -a, -um) are usually not part of the occluded sentence, even though for some a meaning may be found. Where the desired VCV (see VCV Formula) word was not available, a CV word was used e.g. contra, familia, pendeo. The first vowel of the words is in most cases eliminated in the word construction process and here represented by a dot. There appears to be no rule to guide the use of 'h' between double vowels. If the 'h' could be used, it was (e.g. enuntiatio, quantum); if the 'h' could not be used, it was ignored (e.g. distoare, familia).


          As many Latin words are quite long, the detailed notation is used here for clarity. All Basque words are shown in italics. The meaning of the name "Latin" is interesting because it tells us that everybody had to memorize the invented words, whether they liked it or not:


                          Latin, .la-ati-in.
.la          ela        ela                     word
ati          ati       
atxiki gogoz       to memorize
in.          ino      
inornahi             everybody

"Everybody memorize the words"




attingo (to touch) at. - .ti - in. - .go
at.         ate             atezatu               to stretch out
.ti          eti       
      etikoa                ethical
ine         ine  
         inertzia              relaxing
.go        ego         
egoski                 to nurse

"Stretch out for ethical and relaxing nursing."    


barbaricus (foreign, outlandish) .ba - ar. - .ba - ari - iku - us.
.ba        eba           ebatzi                 to decide
ar.         are      
    arerio                enemy
.ba        eba         
ebatsi                 to plunder
ari         ari          
arimagalduki      ruthlessly
iku        iku      
    ikustari              explorer
us.        us.           
us.                     Latin ending

"The enemy decided to ruthlessly plunder the explorers." 


benevolens (kindharted) .be - ene - ebo - ole - en. - .s.
.be         abe        abegikor             hospitable
ene        ene        
enetan                always
ebo       ebo        
eboluzionatu       to evolve
ole        ole       
  oles egin             to call upon
en.        ene        
eneganatu           come to me/come here
.s.         eso        
esonde                 advice

"We/Our order) evolved to be always hospitable, so come here and call upon us for advice."


cadaverosa (ghastly) .ka - ada - abe - ero - osa
.ka        aka        akabatu          to end a life
ada       ada      
adarkatu         to gore
abe       abe      
aberetsu          brutal
ero        ero        
erro                 to suffer   
osa       osa      
osategi            hospital

"He suffered a brutal goring and ended his life in hospital."


contra  (in opposition, in turn) ko - on. - .tra
ko         ko        kontrako          enemy/opponent
on.        ona    
onargaitz          unacceptable/not welcome
.tra        atra   
atrakaleku        pier/dock

"The enemy is not welcome at the dock."


distoare (to separate, be distant) .di - is. - .to - are
.di         edi        ediren              to find/to meet with
is.         ise       
isekatu             ridicule
.to        eto      
etorrera            arrival
are       are     
aren                    his

"(Upon) his arrival he met with ridicule."


dogma (doctrine) .do - og. - .ma
.do        odo        odolaitortza    martyrdom
og.        ogu        
ogusi                to articulate, peak clearly
.ma        uma      
umatu                to be fruitful

"Speak clearly about (His) martyrdom and be fruitful."


enuntiatio (proposition) enu - un. - .ti - i.a - ati - o
enu       enu      enuldu              useless
un.       una     
unagarri           boring
.ti         ati       
atxiki                 gathering
i.a         iha  
    iharduki           to discuss
ati        ati      
atxikitasun       faithfulness

"Useless, boring gathering discussing faithfulness."


errare (error, mistake) er. - .ra - are
er.        era      erratu                to make a mistake
ar.        are   
  arek                   he
are        are   
arrezin               unacceptable

"He made an unacceptable mistake."


familia (family) fa-ami-ili-ia
.fa         fa         farre egin        to joke, to laugh
ami       ami     
amiamoko       stork
ili          ili       
  ilintitu             stirring up the fire
ia          ia          iaio                   cheerful

"Joking about the stork while stirring up the cheerful fire".


filia (daughter)    .fi - ili - ia
.fi        ifi           ibili                  to be
ili        ili          
ilinti                 fiery, energetic
is        ia          
iaio                   cheerful

"She is energetic and cheerful."


fortuna, .fo-or.-.tu-una
.bo      abo       abogadu          lawyer
or.       ora      
orratio              surprise
.tu       atu      
atutxa               better world
una     una     
unai                  cowherd

"The lawyer's surprise (opened up) a better world for the cowherd".


forum,  .f. - oru - um.
.f.         afa       afa                    happy
oru      oru      
orrukatu         to roar
um.      ume     
umekada        childish

"Happy childish roaring".


galeritus (wearing a farmer's cap) .ga - ale - eri - itu
.ga        iga        igandetu        to dress up
ale        ale      
alegeratu        to rejoice
eri        erri      
errixee             common people
ita        ita  
     itaialdi             harvest time
us.        us.     
us.                     Latin ending

"Dress up and rejoice with the common people at harvest time."


haruspa (sooth sayer) .ha - aru - us. - .pa
ha          ha      haurresan         prediction
aru        aru   
arrunki               simply
us.        usa   
usain hartu       to suspect
.pa        apa   
apaindu             to make up

"Her prediction, I suspect, she simply made it up."


inquisition (inquiry) ink. - isi - ishi - on.
ink.        inke   inkestatu              to make an investigation
isi          izi       
izigarrikeria       atrocity
ishi        ixi      
ixil                         calmly
on.        one   
onegitasun            extreme patience

"Calmly and with extreme patience make an investigation of the atrocities."


Italia ita-ali-ia,
ita          ita     itaitu                 to harvest
ali         ali   
  alik arinen       as fast as possible
ia          ia     
iaioki                 cheerfully

"They cheerfully harvest as fast as possible".


justitia  (justice)   ju-ust.-.ti-iha
ju        uju      uju                    shout for joy, being pleased
usti    uzti   
   uzti                   omission
iti        iti   
    idiki                  to expose
i.a       iha   
  ihardukitze     dispute

"(He/she) is pleased that the omission in the dispute was exposed".


koinonia (fellowship)
.ko    ako    akordiozko     traditional
ino    ino   
inor                  anyone
oni    oni   
onirizte            acceptance
ia       ia     
iaio                   cheerful

"The traditional cheerful acceptance of anyone."


liquide (clearly, plainly) .li - iku - ide
.li        oli      olio                oil
iku      iku   
ikusi                to look
ide      ide   
idekotasun    homogeneity, clarity

"Look at the clarity of the oil."


locus (place, site)
.lo     alo      alor                 farmer
oku   oku   
okuntza          fertile field
us.    usa   
usatu               to use

"The farmer uses the fertile field."   


lubrico (to oil)
.lu     elu       elur               snow
ub.    ube     
ubeldu         to bruise
.ri      eri      
erion              to slip/spill
iko    iko     
-iko                that

"She/he slipped on the snow so that she/he bruised."


luxor (to live riotously, to have a ball)
lu      lu       lupu egin      to procure
uk.    uka   
ukan              goods
.so    aso   
-azo                to cause to happen
or.     ori   
orritz               feast

"Procure the goods and we will have a feast".


maledicax (abusive)   .ma - ale - edi - ika - ak. - .s.
.ma       ama    ama                priestess
ale        ale   
alegia             fake
edi        edi   
ediren            to find
ika        ika   
ikaradura      terror
ak.        aka   
akabu             death
.s.         asa   
asaldagarri   shocking

"(Near) the fake priestess you find terror and shocking death."


natura (birth, nature, world) .na - atu ura
na        na        nabarmen     showing, visible
atu      atu      
atutxa            evergreen forest
ura      urra     
urrats             footprint

"Footprints showing in the evergreen forest."  


naufragium, (shipwreck)   .na-uf.-.ra-agi-um.
.na      ina       inauskatu      rolling over
uf.      ufa      
ufatu               to blow
.ra      ara      
arraio             hell
agi     agi      
agindun         commander
um.     umo   
umoretxar      bad tempered

"Rolling in this blowing hell with a bad tempered commander".


opera (effort, pain, work) ope - era
ope       ope    opetsi             to offer
era        era   
erakarpen      attraction

"(We/I) offer an attraction."


orator (speaker)  ora - ato - or.
ora        ora    orain             now
ato        ato   
ator               to come
or.        oro   
orotara         all together

"Now come all together."


pendeo (to hang, suspend)
pe        pe       pertxa         hanger
en.      ena     ena               that   
.de      ede     edeki           to take
o        o           o                  (Latin ending)

"Take that hanger."


praecedentium (president), .p.-.ra-ece-ede-en.-.ti-um
.p.       apa    aparteko            aparteko
.ra       ara   
arazo                    task
ece     ese   
esetsi                   to attack
ede     ede   
ederrak hartu   to defeat
enu    enulkeria          slothfulness
.ti        uti   
  utikan                to drive away
um.     umo   
umoretxar          moodiness

"It is a special task to attack and defeat slothfulness and to drive away moodiness".(Spelling taken from the Auraicept na n'Eces, line 5085, page 259).


quantum (as much as, how much) .ku - an. - .tu - um.
.ku        iku      ikuztontzi     bucket
u.a        uha   
uharka          cistern
an.        ana   
anaitu            to gather, to collect
.tu        itu   
  iturritza         spring
um.     um.                 Latin ending

"Take a bucket from the cistern and collect water from the spring."


ratio (calculation) .ra - ati - o
.ra        ara     arabera        proportion
ati        ati   
  atxiki            to memorize

"Memorize the proportion."


recido (to fall back, to sink) .re - eki - ido
.re         ire      irestzaile      destructive
eki        eki   
ekinexko        persistent
ido        ido   
idola              torrential rain

"Destructive and persistent torrential rain."


sata (daughter)  .sa - ata
.sa        asa    asarrerazo     to infuriate
ata        ata   
atalgabeko    simple

"Simply infuriating".


sperare (to hope for)
.spe    espe    espetxe             prison
era      - era     eramankizun   patience
are      are       
arrendu           to pray

"In prison pray for patience."


turilega (incense gathering)  .tu - uri - ile - ega
.tu        atu      atutxa             evergreen forest
uri        uri   
   urrin               scent, fragrance
ile        ile  
     iletari             mourner
ega      ega   
egapetu           to favor

"The mourners favor the scent of the evergreen forest."


ultra (farther, beyond)   ul. - .tra
ul.        ula    ulatu                  to welcome
.tra      atra   
atrakaleku       pier, dock

"Welcome (them) at the dock."


valetudinarium (hospital)   .ba-ale-etu-udi-ina-ari-um.
.ba     aba    abantzu                 almost
ale      ale   
alen                         total
etu     etu   
etsitu                       to despair
udi     udi   
udikan hemendik get out of there
ina     ina   
inarrosi                   to shake
ari     ari   
  ariņeketan             very fast
um.   ume   
ume                        child

"In almost total despair he got the shaking child out of there very fast".


vindicatio (punishment, avenging).bi - in. - .di - ika - ati        ibi    ibili                 to behave
in.        inu   
inuzente          stupid
.di        udi   
udikan            get out
ika       ika  
  ikasi                to learn
at        ati   
  atxiki               to retain, to control yourself
o         o      
o                        Latin ending

"You behave stupid, get out and learn to control yourself."


zona (belt, sash)   .zo - ona
.zo        azo    -azo                 to bring about
ona      ona   
onarketa        approval

"To bring about approval." (i.e. "Well dressed.")







(The supply is endless. Nyland (2001) believes that most Latin names can be decoded in this manner.)


Cronus .k. - .ro - onu - us.
.k.        aka    akabatu             to end
.ro        ar.  
   arroztu              exile
onu     onu   
onuragabeko   useless
us.       uso   
uso                      dove, holy man

"It ended in a useless exile for the holy man."


Nero  .ne-ero
.ne     ene      enetan              always
ero     ero   
  ero                     crazy

"Always crazy".


Odysseus odi - is. - .se - us.
odi       odei    odeiertz           horizon
is.        ise        
iseka egin     to make fun of
.se       ese   
  ezezagun         unknown
us.       usa   
usain hartu      to suspect

"He makes fun of the unknown beyond the horizon."


Peter .pe - ete - er.
.pe        ape    apez                  priest
ete        ete   
  etengabe         constant
era      eraspen            devotion

"Priest of constant devotion".


Ulysses uli - is. - .se - es.
uli        uli        uli                      coward
is.        isi      
isilkari               sneaky
.se       ise   
  izentxarreko      infamous
es.      esi      ezigabe                savage

"Sneaky, infamous and savage coward."





          It is a characteristic of words invented for the Latin language that they adhere to the (V)CV-VCV-VCV formula. Some words used in the Latin language do not conform to this.  Therefore, Nyland (2001) believed that they probably have been borrowed from elsewhere such as from Greek or Basque. One such word is inaugurato (to inaugurate, to open). The agglutination tells us that this word was borrowed from Basque, which does not usually adhere exactly to the VCV formula:


ina - au - gura - atu
inaustu - au - gura - atutxa
to cut - this one - desire - better future
"I cut this one (ribbon) in our desire for a better future."


More such words to follow as they show up.


          For a Canadian the most accessible Latin phrase is on the Canadian Coat-of-Arms. It reads:


Desiderantes meliorem patriam.


Desiderantes (desiring) .de - esi - ide - era - ante - es.
.de         ede        eder izan         to be pleased
esi         ezi        
ezi                 to control
ide         ide       
ideiatu             to invent
era         era       
erabide             method
ante      ante 
     antepara         bringing water to the waterwheel
es.         ezu       
ezusteki           spontaneously

Pleased to have invented a method to control the bringing of water to the waterwheel spontaneously.


meliorem (better) .me - eli - ore - em.
.me       ome        menka                                    according to
eli         eli   
      elizaren hamar aginduak ten commandments of the church
ore       ore   
    oreka                                      balance, stability
em.       ema      eman                                       to teach

Teach stability according to the ten commandments of the church


patriam (homeland) .pa - at. - .ri - am.
.pa      opa       opa izan           longing for
at.       ate   
    aterpe               shelter, protection
.ri        eri   
    errialde              region, homeland
am.     amo  
  amoltsu              beloved

"Longing for the protection of our beloved homeland"


          The present meaning of the three words, "We desire a better homeland", makes sense for a country of immigrants, but the occluded meaning of the three individual words does not make a sentence Nyland (2001).