NINE MILE FEVER
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A disease named "Nine Mile Fever" occurred in Montana in 1938, with the infectious agent, Coxiella (Rickettsia) diaborica being isolated from the tick, Dermacentor andersoni (Matheson 1950). However, one year earlier Derrick (1937) isolated a similar disease in Australia named Australian "Q" Fever with infectious agent Coxiella (Rickettsia) burneti. The two diseases were believed to be identical at the time, but many more vectors were found in America: Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor occidentalis, Otobius megnini, Ornithodoros moubata, Ornithodoros hermsi and Rhipicephalus sanguineus.
The rickettsiae develop in the epithelium lining of the intestines of the tick so that the lumen and fecal wastes are highly charged. The feces are highly infectious even when dry, especially to broken or injured skin. Transmission is only through fecal wastes of infected ticks entering the wounds or by way of the respiratory tract. Please refer also to LIFE CYCLE: Australian "Q" Fever
Control involves precautionary behavior, especially avoiding inhalation around infected animals and carcasses.
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