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                  [Note:  All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]




A review derived from the following:


Nyland, Edo.  2001.  Linguistic Archaeology: An
Introduction.   Trafford Publ., Victoria, B.C., Canada.

ISBN 1-55212-668-4. 541 p.



----Please CLICK on desired underlined categories [to search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:







          An ancient language form that originated in the North African area of our most ancient civilizations has been studied by Nyland (2001).  He found that many words used to describe names of places and things in the area of Samaria seem to be closely related to the ancient language, which he called Saharan.  It appears that the Basque Language is a close relative to the original Saharan, and the Igbo Language of West Africa predated most languages  Following is a discussion of this relationship:

         A review of events that took place at the dawn of civilization was given by Nyland (2001).  The long era of the tribal, egalitarian society of the Neolithic came to an end between 4,000 and 3,000 B.C. Archaeologists and anthropologists have documented that the early society of Mesopotamia had been guided by women and had a Goddess as deity. During the Neolithic, the men had been in charge of all the work outside the tribal area, being away for long periods of time doing herding, hunting, fishing, exploring etc. This all changed because of a number of advances and happenings. The rapid desertification of the Sahara (See Climate)  caused an enormous exodus of the tribes living in these formerly productive grazing lands. Many migrated to areas of excellent soils where high quality agriculture was possible, such as the floodplains of the Fertile Crescent and the Indus valley, and the loess areas of southern Russia. Metalworking and mining were invented, the camel and horse were domesticated, star navigation and ocean travel were perfected and all continents of the world had been discovered. The growing populations demanded improvements in food production with a result that over-population pressures and conflicts over land and resources developed. The settlement of the Saharan tribes in areas of agricultural potential kept the men at home, demanding more control over tribal organization. Centralized religious control from the Sahara had become difficult to impossible to maintain and a breakdown of the old gylanic society was inevitable.


         The first change made by the men, who were now in charge of the tribe, was to dispose of the annual voluntary sacrifice of a special young man (Tammuz), which had been felt essential to bring back the summer and nature's productivity. He had experienced the exalted position of king, a bridge between the deity and the people, wearing the purple robe for six months after participating in the Sacred Marriage around May 1, and was supposed to have gone to his death on November 1 but refused, as was so well documented in the Gilgamesh epic. The end of female leadership can be deducted from the following quote in "In the Wake of the Goddesses" by Frymer-Kenski:


         "The dynasty of Kish was founded by Enmebaragesi, a contemporary of Gilgamesh, who it now appears may have been a woman" (p. 79)


         The "name" Enmebaragesi" tells us a story. When separating this "name" into its VCV components it becomes immediately clear that in this Samerian "name" we are dealing with a scholarly manipulated statement in the Saharan/Basque language:


en. - .me - eba - ara - age - esi
ene - eme - eba - ara - age - esi
enetik - eme - ebakin - aragikor - ageriko - ezi
from that time on - female - harvest - lustful - notorious - to domesticate
"From that time on the lustful, notorious harvest female was domesticated".


         The 'harvest female' mentioned was no queen, and she did not found a dynasty, but she likely was a priestess associated with agriculture, a real historical person. Her "name" tells us in no uncertain terms that the time of the Goddess was on the decline, because male domination had arrived. With this change in society and abundant agricultural production came an astonishing outburst of scholarly inventiveness. Some educated people were now able to devote their lives to pursuits other than survival. They decided that the time had come to disband the tribal system and to create city states and nations. The old, highly evolved, language of Africa was considered too closely associated with the Goddess society and had to be changed, as is clearly shown in the creation of new languages such as Samerian and Akkadian.




         Somewhere in West Africa the center of the first civilization on earth had developed and all people were taught the same highly developed language which Nyland later calls Saharan. Those migrants who subsequently settled in the Fertile Crescent, Anatolia, the Ukraine and the Indus valley therefore all spoke the same Saharan Language, which evolved from the more ancient Igbo Language: "Now the whole world spoke one language (Genesis 11:1)". In the areas where male domination had taken hold priest/scholars were assigned to develop new languages that had no likeness to the original. The people settling in the Indus valley taught the Saharan language to the endemic population which today is spoken in the little manipulated Dravidian family of languages (see Lahovary). The first efforts of manipulating the foundation language were probably made in Sameria and at first were quite unorganized, some using the original Saharan vowel-interlocking agglutination formula while others just put original words together, or combinations of both systems. Examples of vowel-agglutination are the new words invented for king shown here in several extinct near-eastern languages:


Lugal (Samerian)      
.lu - uga - al.
ilu - uga - ali
 ilundu - ugazaba - alienatu
to get angry - master - to kill a person 
"When the master gets angy he kills"


Sharru (Akkadian)
sha - ar. - .ru
xa - are - eru
xahutu - arerio - errukigabeki
to destroy - enemy - mercilessly
"He destroys the enemy mercilessly.".


Hasshu (Hittite)
ha - as. - .xu
ha - ase - exu
handizki - aserretu - exustez
majesty/aristocrat - to anger - unexpectantly
"(His) majesty angers unexpectedly".


Ereli (Urartaean)
ere - eli
errege - elizatiar
king - pious
"Pious king".


Ivri (Hurrian)
iv. - .ri
ibi - iri
ibili (to be) - irrikan
to be - ambitious
"He is ambitious".


         An example of assembling parts of Saharan words into new words and names without the VCV formula is: Nunbarsegunu, (an alternate name for the Goddess Nisaba, mother of Ninlil):


nun '  bar '  segunu
nunbait '  barnatu '  segundu
from nowhere '  to come in/appear '  second/instant
"In an instant she appeared from nowhere".


         From these and following translations Nyland (2001) shows that both Samerian and Akkadian words and names are assembled by scholarly manipulation from Saharan/Basque vocabulary. The modern Basque-English dictionary by Gorka Aulestia is still perfectly suitable to translate these ca 4,800 year old names and words. This means that the  modern Basque language has changed very little since that time. Other vowel-interlocking name are: Sumer, which tells of the peoples' arrival in Mesopotamia:


su - ume - er.
su - ume - era
sustraitu - ume - eraspen
to settle down - child - devotion
"The devoted children settled down".


Akkadia, the nation of builders:

ak. - ka - adi - ia
aki - ika - adi - ia
akigabe - ikasgo - adibide - iaio
tireless - teaching - advice - expert
"Tireless teaching and expert advice".

Could it be that the Samerians and Akkadians were the same people?


         School children are taught that Mesopotamia is 1) a Greek word and 2) that it means "land between the rivers".  Both statements are obviously incorrect:


.me - eso - opo - ota - ami - i.a
eme - exo - opo - ota - ami - iha
emen - exorzizatu - oporrez - otalurmendiak - amiltze - ihardunaldi
here - to drive out/ to flow out - lazily - wild mountains - tumbling down - period of activity
"Here (the rivers) flow lazily (after) a period of tumbling down the wild mountains".


         In the flat land the two rivers are usually sluggish but in the mountains both are wild. The name Mesopotamia is agglutinated from pure Saharan/Basque vocabulary, not Greek. The proper pronunciation of Mesopotamia has to be Mesopotamian because eso (advice) makes no sense in the description, exo does.





         Two large rivers dominate Mesopotamia, the Euphrates and the Tigris, the pre-historic names of which are reported to have been Buranun and Idiglat. Both names are obviously made up out of Saharan/Basque:


Idiglat (Tigris)
idi - ig. - .la - at.
idi - igo - ola - ato
idiki - igon - olatu - ator
         to discover/observe - to get higher - wave - Come!
"I observed that the waves are getting higher, Come!"


Buranun (Euphrates)
bu - ura - anu - un.
bu - ura - anu - une
burrundara - uraldi - anu egin - unean
deafening noise - flood - fall back in fear - instantly
"The deafening noise of the flood made me fall back in fear instantly".  


         When male domination arrived new languages were created and all geographical features renamed, but the new names carry the same message as the old ones:



eu - uf. - .ra - ate - es.
eu - ufa - ara - ate - ezi
eurizaparrada - ufatu - arao - aterperatu - ezinjasanezko
downpour - blowing/wind - curse - let's get out of the rain - unbearable
"The downpour and the wind are a curse,  let's get out of this unbearable rain".



.ti - ig. - .ri - is.
uti - ige - eri - iso
utikan - iges egin - erioaldi - isola
get away from here - to escape - agony - torrential rain
"Get away from here and escape from the agony of the torrential rain".





         Notations on stone, bone and clay have been known from as far back as 16,000 bce., according to Marija Gimbutas in "The Language of the Goddess".  The Igbo of southern Nigeria are known to have written texts on sticks and clay vessels (See:  Acholonu), but most writing did not come into being until the clay tablets were written in the City of Uruk some time before 3000 bce. in a pictographic script. This script evolved into the extremely durable cuneiform script by 2,800 bce.., which was used on clay for nearly 3,000 years. The first translation efforts were made around 1850 but no real progress occurred until 1923 when the first Samerian grammar appeared. In the intervening period, masses of clay tablets had been found and distributed to museums around the world. Many were treated as curiosities, carelessly dug up, stored without protection and often separated from the ones they were found with and even knocked in half to bring in more money. Much effort has now gone into reading them, but there still remains a massive amount to be done. In the meantime, the political uncertainties in Iraq have seen to it that excavation was effectively stopped.  Whole libraries are thought to await discovery, to be brought to light by the next generations of students. A Goddess is given credit for the invention of writing:

Nisa'ba,  ni-isa'ba:

ni - isa ' ba
ni - izaditu '  baimenagiri
I - to create  '  written document
"I create written documents".


         Samerian is closely tied in with the Akkadian language, which is supposed to be a Semitic language. Akkadian myths were told in Samerian, Hittite, Hurrian and Akkadian. Samerian words have few, or no, vowels, but Akkadian words have vowels. The Akkadian writers appear to have considered Samerian to be a classical language, similar to our academics using Latin. People in positions of command had their names designed in Samerian, such as King Sargon:


.sa - ar. - .go - on.
esa - ara - ago - one
esaeratsu - arautzaile - agorgaitz - onegite
wise - lawgiver - tireless - doing good
"Wise lawgiver, tirelessly doing good".


         Nin'Hursag was known as the Mountain Lady, Lady of the Foot-hills, Ninmah the Supreme Lady, Mother of all Children, Mistress of the Gods etc. The name Hursag is traditionally translated as either 'foothills' or 'mountains', however, although she had something important to do in the hilly country beyond the valley, this was not the translation. In order to supply the people in the valley with an adequate and reliable, potable water supply, an astonishing 80 km conduit was built from lakes existing in the eastern hills, much of it a tunnel, deep underground, cut through living rock. It still functions to this day, as planned so long ago. The translation of her name tells us what she did:


.ni - in. ' .hu - ur. - .sa - ag.
oni - ina '  hu - uro - osa - ago
onibilera - inauguratu '  hura - uroditza - osatu - ageriko 
     prosperity - inauguration '  she - watertunnel/conduit - to complete - public
"She inaugurated the completed water tunnel for public prosperity".





         Stephany Dalley, in her "Myths from Mesopotamia" (p. 2) provides us with seven different names for the man who survived the great flood by building a boat. The Samerian name is thought to be the oldest:



.zi - i.u - usu - ud. - .ra
izi - ihu - usu - udi - ira
izigarri - ihurtziri - usu - udikan - iragaile
frightening - thunder - persistently - to go/sail away - boatman
"The bargeman sailed away during the frightening and persistent thunder".



Atrahasis (Akkadian):

atra - aha - asi - is.
atrakaleku - ahalik - asi - isola
pier - as soon as possible - to start - torrential rain
"He left the pier as soon as possible after the torrential rain started".


         Utnapishtim, the wise priest of Shuruppak, mentioned in the Gilgamesh Epic (ca 2700 B.C.). This name is also thought to be Akkadian, however, the translation of his name appears to have nothing to do with the big flood or the ark. However, what Ms. Dalley thought to be his hologram: Ud.Zi could very well refer to the flood: udi-izi, udikan-izi (go away - it's frightening).


ut. '  na '  pish '  ti '  im.
uti ' na ' pix ' ti - imi
utikan '  nabarmen '  pix '  tirriatu '  imiņa
get away ' immoral ' urine/menstruation ' to want ' a measure/ bit
"Get away from here! To want some menstrual blood is immoral!"



xu - uru - up. - .pa - ak.
xu - uru - upa - apa - ako
xurugatu - urruindu - upa - apaiz - akordiozko
to gulp - to despise - beer cask - priest - traditional
"The traditional priest despised the gulping of beer from the cask".
Here we may have the first admonition against public drunkenness.


Xisuthros (Babylonian):

         This name was used by the Babylonian priest Berossus in his book "Babyloniaca" (third century B.C.) to tell the history of the flood. It seems to be an alternate for Ziusudra or Atrahasis. The first letter X has to be a contraction of KS or more accurately: KZ:


k. - .zi - isu - ut. - .h. - .ro - os.
ke - ezi - isu - utu - uho - oro - osi
keinatu - ezinjasanezinez - izubera - utxu - uholde - orroe - osintsu
to threaten - unbearably - frightening - loud cry - flood - roar - very deep
"The unbearably frightening loud cries and the roar of
the very deep flood is threatening".


Noah, (Palestinian):
noa is modern Basque and simply means: "I go" or "I am going".


         Of the above seven names for the boatman who survived the flood, listed by Stephany Dalley,  Utnapishtim and Shuruppak do not appear to belong in the story of the Ark. Atrahasis, Ziusudra, Noah, Kzisuthros and even UdZi qualify as authentic flood names.


         A first millennium lamentation which refers to the flood is the "Uruamirabi Congregational Lament". (Mark Cohen in "The Canonical Lamentations of Ancient Mesopotamia" Potomac Md, 1988.)


uru - uha - ami - ira - abi
urrutiratze - uhalde - amilura - iragaile - abiaduran
getting away - deluge - waterfall - bargeman - in a hurry
"Get away from the deluge like a waterfall, the bargeman is in a hurry".





         Ama'ushumgalanna, supposedly the name by which the Priestess called the king who was her partner in the Sacred Marriage feast (Frymer-Kenski p.59). More likely it is the traditional cry uttered by the Priestess at the start of the sexual union:


ama ' ushu - ume - galan - na
Ama - uxu - ume - galant - -nahi
priestess - cry of happiness - youth - handsome - desirous
"The priestess' cry of happiness upon seeing
the handsome and desirous youth".


Ammisaduqa (king of Babylon):

am. - .mi - isa - adu - uka
ama - ami - iza - adu - uka
amaitu - amildu - izadi - adurtsu - ukan
to destroy - to oust/avoid - creation/engineering - fortunate - to possess
"We avoid destruction (because) we are fortunate
to possess engineering".


Anduruna (home of the gods), andu - uruna

andu - urunna
pasture - distant/far away
"far away pastures".


Aruru (mother goddess):

aru - uru
aruntz onuntz ibili - urru
to wander - far away
"She wanders far away".


         Assurbanipal (king of Assyria who succeeded king Esarhaddon and then extended the Assyrian empire to reach from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean and the Caucasus):


as. - .su - ur. - .ba - ani - ipa - al.
asi - isu - uri - iba - ani - ipa - alu
asi - izuikaratu - uri - ibar - anitz - ipar - alukeria
to start - to terrorize - city - valley - many - northern - repulsive actions
"He started to terrorize many cities in the northern valley with repulsive actions."


Astarte (one of the three prominent goddesses of Ugarit):

asta - arte
astalarrosa - -arte
wild rose - among us
"A wild rose among us".


Badtibira (early city, rival of Uruk?, hardly):

bad ' ti ' bira
badaezbadako ' -ti ' biraobota
rude '  habit '  to curse
"Bad habit of cursing".


Enheduanna, (daughter of Sargon):

en. - .he - edu - u.a - ana
ene - ehe - edu - uha - ana
enegana - ee! - edukitsu - uhalde - anaitu
come to me - Attention! - powerful - flood - to unite/to gather
"Attention! Come to me, a powerful flood is gathering".


Enki (god of pro-creation):

en. - .ki
ene - eki
ene - ekinbide
my - initiative
"My initiative".


         Geshtinanna (goddess who sang laments for the return of her brother Dumuzi (Tammuz) from the



gestina - ana
gestionatu - anaia
to negotiate - brother
"She negotiated for her brother's (return)".



Gudea (king of Lagash, ca 2200 B.C.):

gud. '  ea
guda '  ea
warrior '  emphasis/the best
"The best warrior".


Hammurabi (early Babylonian king and law-giver):

ham. '  mu. - ura - abi
hamai '  muga - ura - abiarazi
many - restriction/law - he - to promulgate
"He promulgated many laws".


Kazallu (early city?):

kaz  '  alu
kazeta '  alukeria
writing on clay tablet - objectionable
"Objectionable writing on clay tablet".


         Lugal'raggesi, (king of Umma who laid siege to the city of Lagash and destroyed it". The following translation is obviously not his real name, but instead was written by one of his victims.)


.lu - uga - al.  '  .za - ag. - .ge - esi
ilu - uga - ali  '   za - agi - ige - ezi
ilundu - ugazaba - alienatu  '   zaildu - agian - igesegin - esiketa
to get angry-master-to kill a person  '  to be difficult-I hope-to escape-siege     
"When the master gets angry he kills. It may be difficult
but I hope to escape the siege."


Meskiaggasir (possibly the first king of Uruk):

.me - es. - .ki- - asi - ir.
ome - esa - aki - age - ega - asi - iri
omenezko - ezalari - akigabe - ageriko - egapetu - asi - iri
honorable - founder - tireless - public - to protect - to start - city
"Honorable founder, tireless public protector, who started the city".


Urukagina (king of Lagash who protected his citizens from bureaucratic injustice.)

uru - uka - agi - ina
urruindu - ukan - agintza - inarrosketa
to despise - to have - legacy - fomentation/chaos
"He despised to have (inherited) a legacy of chaos."


Zabalam (early city):

zabal - am.
zabal - amodiozko
generous - loving
"Generous and loving".


Zulummar (goddess who dug the clay for Enlil to create humanity):

.zu - ulu - um. - .ma - ar.
azu - ulu - ume - ema - ari
azukre - uluka - ume - emarazi - arin
sugar/sweet - crying - child - to calm down - quickly
"With a sweet she quickly calmed down the crying child".





          It is astonishing to me that the Neolithic language of the Sahara has survived the millennia almost intact, while virtually all of the later languages, derived from the Saharan substratum, were greatly altered over time or by design, or have not survived the test of time. The fact that the very early Saharan Language is still spoken in almost the same condition by the Basque people must have a very special reason behind it, possibly something to do with the incredibly accurate oral transmission of the legends and literature, which required a very high standard of education. Another reason may be that the vowels are extremely stable in Basque, while the consonants are stable in Indo-European and the vowels very unstable (e.g. sing - sang - sung), which may well have been done on purpose in the 'turning around' process.


         The migrating peoples from the Sahara appear to have created the high civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the Indus valley. Several archaeologists working in Sameria commented on the fact that the Samerian and Akkadian civilizations appeared to have no primitive base locally i.e. the people arrived there from elsewhere with all the knowledge of how to build such a civilization. They therefore must themselves have experienced this civilization in their place of origin, probably in southern Nigeria, and later northward where extensive irrigation canal systems have been spotted (NASA photography) and standing stones are still prominent. The Saharan Language, that is now known to have its origins in the more ancient Igbo Language of Nigeria, is clearly detectable in all four early civilizations, as is shown above for Sumer and Akkad and in the following:   Old Egyptian, Hebrew, Sanskrit and Dravidian.