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[Note:  All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]


                                             DUTCH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1


        A review derived from the following:


    Nyland, Edo.  2001.  Linguistic Archaeology: An
Introduction.   Trafford Publ., Victoria, B.C., Canada.

                  ISBN 1-55212-668-4. 541 p.


----Please CLICK on underlined categories for detail [to search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:



Egmond Abbey


Contributions To Language

Olla Vogala

Pre-Christian Influences



Netherlands Place Names

Word Groupings

Genetic Relationships



Friesian Place Names

Friesian Dutch Islands

Friesian German Islands


Friesian Danish Islands




          An ancient language form that originated in the North African area of our most ancient civilizations has been studied by Nyland (2001).  He found that many words used to describe names of places and things in the area of The Netherlands seem to be closely related to the ancient language, Nyland called Saharan, and which later was predated by the Igbo Language of West Africa.  Fortuitously, the Basque Language is a close relative to the original Saharan.  Following is a discussion of this relationship:


          In discussions of the English language, the Ogam script and the Benedictines, Nyland (2001) showed how the Benedictine clergy and their grammarians invented thousands of words by manipulating the universal language, the Saharan/Basque language, with the use of the vowel-interlocking Ogam formula. The same was done when they created the Dutch and German languages but with an important difference.  For English they followed the example of Latin and Sanskrit, and used primarily that half of the Basque vocabulary that started with vowel-consonant (VC). To invent Dutch and German, both halves of the Basque language, VC and CV words were used and the originally strict VCV Formula rules of word agglutination were relaxed.  That is why their work resulted in quite different languages. In order to understand the methods of word and name translations, it is necessary to become familiar with a specific procedure (see Ogam script & Translations).




          Although the languages mentioned are not mutually fully understandable, it is relatively easy for a native of The Netherlands to learn both German and English because Dutch is a kind of bridge between the two. The reason for this appears to be that all three languages were made up during the same era by the same brotherhood of Benedictine grammarians who worked closely together and borrowed newly created words regularly.  Then they shaped the words according to predetermined sets of character rules. The Egmond Abbey, which was built in 922 A.D. near the North Sea coast, west of the City of Alkmaar in North Holland, appears to have been the central clearinghouse for the exchange and distribution of words and literature. Contact between this abbey and the other scriptorium was frequent.  The Abbey was accessible by boat both from the sea to the west, and from the Rhine hinterland to the east. The name "Egmond" relates to the linguistic activities going on at the abbey: eg.-mo-ond.


eg.       egi          egin                     to create
mo       mo          
moldez               skillfully
ond.    ondo     
ondorekidego   common inheritance

(We) skillfully create a common inheritance


          Documents available from Alcuin's time in the late 800's (Shipley-Duckett 1951) tell us that the monks from England regularly sailed to the mainland, while the monks from Germany and Austria would go over land and by boat down the Rhine. These monks were highly mobile in their small boats and this may well have been the origin of the name .



ol.         ola       olatu        waves
.la         ala       
alaitu      to fill with joy       
and.     anda   
andar       speeding:

Speeding the waves fills us with joy (the "h" is meaningless).


          The main linguistic center of the French language, located in the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny, appeared to have had little direct contact with Egmond Abbey.  Its main contacts over land with the Romance world instead. The Scandinavian, Hungarian and East European linguistic efforts were still many years in the future. Over the centuries the Benedictine grammarians created tens of thousands of new words out of the universal Saharan language, many of which did not fit in the design plan for the home languages. Rejected words were taken in context to Egmond Abbey where they were evaluated by local Benedictine linguists and others visiting from other countries and then exchanged.  Unwanted words passed into oblivion.  This may have been the fate of the majority of the grammarians’ creations.




          It was in about 1,060 A.D. that the Abbot Willeram, of Ebersberg Benedictine Abbey in Bavaria (east of München) wrote a commentary on Solomon's Song of Songs, the Bible's wedding song. In it, love is explained in an allegorical sense as a dialog between Christ and His Church. The love bed is conceived as evangelism and lovely breasts as mercy. It is not likely that Willeram was the writer's real name because the meaning tells us that it was the title of his work:


Willeram: (the "w" has no meaning)
il.         ile
      ilezin          everlasting
.le       ele
       ele              story
era      era     
erran         to tell
am.     amo   
amodio        love

I tell the everlasting story of love.


          As was normal practice, shortly after completion, the manuscript was taken to Egmond Abbey and made available for study by the visiting monks/grammarians. Willeram's work had a profound influence upon the early development of both Dutch and German. The document is now located in the nearby library of the University of Leiden, Holland. Similarly, at about the same time, the four lines of "Olla Vogala", written in the Rochester Benedictine Abbey near Chatham, England, were taken to Egmond after some of its new words were accepted into the English language (olla became "all", nestas became "nests" etc). All four lines were published in context that made it possible to bring out the hidden Basque sentences. In Egmond several of the newly created words were quickly picked up by the monks working on the Dutch and German languages e.g. 'hebban' became "hebben" in Dutch, "haben" in German, "have" in English, while vogala became "vogels" (birds) in Dutch and "Vögel" in German. First let us look in detail at "Olla Vogala" (van Oostrom).




          The following lines were written on the back page of a prayer book dating from the 11th century, originating in the Benedictine scriptorium of Rochester, England. The third and fourth lines are considered by linguists to be the oldest known prose in the Dutch language, shown here in context:


quid expectamus nunc
abent omnes volucres nidos inceptos nisi ego et tu
hebban olla vogala nestas hagunnan hinase hic
enda thu wat unbidan we nu.

          Lines 1 and 2 contain recognizable Latin words, be it a kind of dog-Latin. Literally, in the order given they read: "What do we expect now gone away all birds' nests begun except I and you (Furlong). Lines 3 and 4 are thought to say in Dutch: Hebben alle vogelen nesten begonnen behalve ik en jij; wat verwachten we nu ("All birds have started nest building except you and I; what can we expect now?"). Lines 1 and 2 therefore say roughly the same in Latin what lines 3 and 4 say in archaic Dutch. These words, supposedly coming from the pen of a Benedictine monk, were received with chuckles and wondering. It better applied to a lover telling his beloved to mirror herself on the behavior of the birds. But is this really what the monk wrote? Again apply the VCV Formula and see what happens; (the "/" indicates a break in the vowel-linking; "c" and "q" must be read as "k", "v" as "b."


kuid expektamus nunk : .ku-id./

.ku iku                                      ikuskari                            visitor
id./ idu                                      idurikortsu                      very distrustful
ek. eka                                     ekaitz                                 storm 
.s.   ase                                      asetu                                  to get tired
.pe epe                                     epel                                     weak
ek. eko                                     ekoitzi                                to supply
.to  ota                                      otapur                               crumb
amu  amu                          amultsu                            trusting
us./ usu                              usu                                     usually
.nu inu                                      inular                                evening
un. una                                     una                                     dull
.k.  aka                                     akatsun                            miserable

The visitors were very distrustful. Tired and weak from the storm, I gave crumbs to the usually

trusting (birds) on that dull, miserable evening.


abent omnes volukres: abe.ent./

abe                    abe                                     abestu                                to sing
ent./                  entz                                    entzungale                      longing to hear
om.                    ome                                   omendatu                      to pay tribute, to thank
.ne                     ene                                     enegana                           to me
es.                      esa                                     esan                                   to express
.bo                     abo                                     abots                                  voice
ol.                        ola                                     ola                                      cabin
.ju                        aju                                     ajuria                                field of heather
uk.                     uka                                     ukan                                  to have
.re                       are                                     arremankor                    sociable
es./                    esa                                     esamesaka                      gossiping

I longed to hear them sing, expressing thanks to me. Their voices (could be heard) from the cabin in the

 field of heather where they had their sociable gossiping time.


nidos inkeptos nisi ego: .ni-ido-os./

.ni  eni                                      eni                                       to me 
ido ido                                      idoroketa                       discovery, revelation
os./oso                                     oso                                      complete
in.  ino                                      inoizka                              occasionally
.ke oke                                    okerbidetu                       to go astray
ep. epe                                     epel                                    timid
.to  eto                                      etorle                                 arrival
os. osa                                      osatu                                  to unify (with family)
.ni  ani                                       anitzetan                          often
isi/ isi                                        isilbidez                            quietly
ego/ego                                   egon                                   to stay

(It was) a complete revelation to me. Occasionally, when a timid arrival had gone astray, looking

for its family, it often quietly stayed.


et tu hebban olla vogala: et./.tu/

et./ eto                                      etor                                     to come 
.tu/ atu                                      atutxa                                oak forest
.he ihe                                      ihesleku                           to shelter
eb. eba                                     ebatzi                                 to decide
.ba aba                                      abarratsu                      many branched
an./ana                                      anaitu                                together
ol.  ole                                      oles egin                           to call upon
.la   ela                                       elaberritsu                       talkative, chattering
.bo  abo                                    aboskatu                          o voice
oga  oga                                   ogasun                              wealth
ala/  ala                                     alaitasun                          happiness

They came to the oak forest and decided to shelter together among the many branches and called

upon (all) by chattering and voicing a wealth of happiness ....


nestas hagunnan hinase: .ne-esta-as./

.ne ene                                     enean                                at the time
esta  esta                                estaldu                              to pair off
as./  ase                                   asegaitz                            urge
.ha oha                                      oharatu                             to become receptive to mating
agu  agu                                   agudotu                            to get active
un. uni                                      unibertsalki                    generally
.na ina                                       inarrosi                             to agitate
an./  ano                                   ano                                     food supply 
.hi  ehi                                      ehizaldi                             to hunt
ina ina                                       inarroskatu                     excitedly
ase/  ase                                  asegabi                          greedily

At the time that they got the urge to pair off.  Becoming receptive to mating, they got generally active and

agitated over their food supply.  They hunted excitedly and greedily,


hik enda thu wat unbidan we nu: .hi-ik./en.-.da/

.hi  ahi                                       ahitugaitz                      inexhaustibly
ik.  ike                                      ikerraldi                           exploring
en. ena                                     -ena                                    superlative
.da ada                                      ada                                     noise
.t.   ate                                       ateratu                              to depart
.hu/ehu                                     ehundaka                     by the hundreds
at./ ata                                       atano                                 evergreen oak forest
un. una                                      unatasun                       fatigue
.bi  abi                                       abiatu                                to leave behind
ida ida                                       idazlan                              writing
an./ana                                      anaia                                 monk
eu  eu                                        eu                                        you 
.nu/inu                                      inurritu                             to inspire

Exploring inexhaustibly. Noisily they departed by the hundreds from the oak forest, leaving your

exhausted monk behind to write and inspire you.


          This is a masterful piece of "double speak" in three languages, Latin, Basque and Dutch. The unique creativity lies in the linguist's ability to write one sentence in Latin, translate this into archaic Dutch and still hide a quite different story in both sentences to be decoded with the use of Basque. This hidden story makes clear that the birds arrived at their wintering grounds in south-east England where they were fed and observed by the monk. In spring, the birds paired off and departed to nest somewhere in the north. The monk's word "nestas" has therefore nothing to do with nest building; it simply means: "at the time they had the urge to pair off." The new word "vogala" certainly described the small songbirds beautifully, they really do "voice a wealth of happiness". There are quite a number of songbird species over wintering in southern England that may have been the "vogala" such as blue and grey tits.




          Dutch has many words and names that seem to be unique to the language.  However, most of these are also found in Basque, often with a closely related meaning. Several of these words have been declared "slang" by linguists in an effort to rid the new language of pre-Christian vocabulary. About some of the words it is hinted that they were borrowed from Yiddish and therefore are supposedly not Dutch at all.   This is not true (see the origin of Yiddish ).


DUTCH (In Blue)


BASQUE  (In Green)


afval (leftovers)

Assepoester (Cinderella)

atje (child's bottom)

bajes (quod, lock-up)

bedaard (calm, relaxed)

bezem (broom)

blaauw (blue)

boer (farmer)

botter (fishing boat)

elkaar (each other)

ergernis (annoyance)

foetsie (poof, gone)

frok (outer garment)

gaan (to go)

gajes (rabble)

gannif  (swindler, thief)

geel (yellow)

geit (goat)

geus (freedom fighter)

gezeur (lamentive)

graan (grain)

hondeweer (bad weather)

jatten (to pilfer food)        

jota (small amount)

kak (excrement)

kar (cart)              

kenau (female leader)

kerel (fellow, chap)

kolder (giddy nonsense)

koop (purchase)

koorts (fever)

kop (cup)

labaaz (stinker, sneak)

laster (slander, smear)

leger (army)

maar (but)

mak (tame)

mal (mold, form)

malie (coat of mail)

matig (frugal, moderate)

mazzel (good luck)            

meer (lake)

minne (heartache)

mug (mosquito)

moker (sledgehammer)

olijk (rogisch)

onzeker (insecure, worried)    

oogst (harvest)

risico (risk)

rood (red)

stad (town)

terp (safe mound)

toeter (hooter)

varanda (porch with railing)  

vee (cattle)

werp (throw)

zeil (sail)


afal (dinner, supper)

astaputz (vulgar, coarse)

atze  (backside, consequence)

baieztakor (assertive, firm)

bedardun (lawn, pasture)

besomotz (short arms)

blaust (blow on the eye) i.e. a black eye

buru (people)

botari (net caster)

elkar (mutual)

erge-era-aniz: ergel  (foolish)-era (behaviour) anitz (frequent)

futz (puff of air)

fraka (trousers)

gana (movement towards a goal)

gaiez (undeserving)

ganibetada (knifing) (f and b are the same)

gelbera (fearful, afraid)

gaitzarin (damage)

geurez,ge'uz (our own initiative)

gezur (evade the truth)

garaun (seed, grain)

honda (disastrous)

jatun (having a good appetite)

jota (broke)

kaka (excrement)

erakarri (to carry)

ken-nau: kenarazi ( revolt) nausi (leader)

ikerle (visitor)

koldar (cowardly)

kopuru (quantity)

ko-ortz: kordokarazi (to clatter) ortz  (tooth): clattering teeth

kopau (mouthful)

labazomorro (cockroach), used in Friesland.

laster (to press, to push)

legeria (code of laws)

ma-ar: ama  (mother's) arrazoinbide (reasoning)

ma-aker: ama (mother's) aker (goat)

malgy (flexible)

maila (wire mesh)

ma-ategain: ama (mother's) ategain (lintels): mother's lintels

mazal (good, decent)

meru (bass, a freshwater fish)

min (pain)

mugagabe (without number)

mokor (ferocious)

olerk (poetry)

onzi-ikar: ontzi (ship) ikara (anxiety): worried about the ship.

ogits (abundant in wheat)

arrisk, arriskatu (to risk)

rotu, arrotu (flushed, blushing)

statu, ostatu (hotel, inn)

terpe, aterpe (refuge, safe haven)

tutu (horn)

baranda (railing)

bei, vei (cow)

erpintsu (pointed) possibly a spear

zail (difficult)




          The Dutch use some rather strange sounding words without knowing the meaning of them; Ingvaeoon is possibly the most outlandish. The pre-Christian inhabitants of Holland were called ingvaeoon by Tacitus, a word which Dutch linguists say means: "living along the ocean, a Saxon word...." To find out the original meaning, again apply the VCV interlocking formula:


ing.    ingi   
ingira                     disgusting
.ba     iba    
ibarjende              lowland people
a.e     aie     
aienekatu            to grieve
e.o     eho   
ehorzkabe            unburied
on.     ona   
onartezintasun     unacceptably

The disgusting people of the lowlands grieve (their dead) while unacceptably unburied.


          Corpse-exposure was, of course, common practice among all peoples worshipping the supreme Goddess of the Ashera Religion. Exposure to the elements was done in special protected facilities to properly release the soul of the deceased from the body for speedy re-incarnation into a newborn child. Dutch linguists use the word Ingvaeoons as the name of the language spoken by the pre-historic people of Holland, a use that the actual meaning of the word shows is incorrect.




          Most older Dutch place names can be decoded with the VCV Formula and translated with the Basque dictionary. There is no doubt that the people spoke the pre-Christian language of all of Europe that was the universal language of the Neolithic, tht Edo Nyland has called Saharan, of which Basque is a close relative. Some of the sentences hidden in the following names must have histories of their own:


Amerongen: ame-ero-onge-en., ameskor (dreaming) erosle (Redeemer) onginahi (kindness) enegana (to me): "I am dreaming about the Redeemer's kindness to me".

Arnhem: ar.-.n.-.he-em., arro-oni-ihe-ema:
arrotz (foreigner) onik (unharmed) ihesaldi (escape) emarrapaketa (abduction of a woman): "The foreign woman escaped unharmed from her abductors".

Assen:, asa-ase-ene:
asaldaketa (excitement) asegaitz (craving for) ene (come to me): "Craving for excitement? Come here!"

Barnegat: .ba-arnegat, ebanjelari (evangelist) arnegatu (to get angry): "The evangelist got angry".

Beveland: .be-ebe-ela-and., ibeni (to introduce, tell) ebertar (Hebrew) ela (story) andi (marvelous): "Tell the marvellous story of Jesus".

Delden:, ade-ela-ade-ene, adeitasun (good manners) ele (conversation) ederretsi (pleasing) adeitsu (courteous)-enetan (always): "Good manners, pleasing conversation and always courteous". (compare this name with the neighboring  town of "Hengelo"). (Delden is the author's family homestead).

Delft: .de-el-.f.-.t., ede-ela-afa-ati, eder (beautiful) ela (story) afa (happy) atxikitzaile (faithfulness): "Beautiful story of happy faithfulness".

Drachten, .d.-.ra-ak.-.te-.en, ada-ara-aka-ate-entz, adarka (by goring, stabbing) arakintzo (massacre) akabatu (to end a life) atezatu (to live on) entzute (fame): "The stabbing massacre ended his life, but his fame lives on". Was that about St. Boniface?

Drente,, adei (courteous) errezibimendu (welcome) enetan (always) etenda (tired): "Always a courteous welcome (for those who are) tired".

Ede: ede, ederren (the most beautiful): "The most beautiful".

Ellekom: el.-.le-eko-om., ela-ale-eko-ome, ela (story) alegera (happy) ekonomo (administrator) omenezko (honorable): "Happy  story of the honorable administrator".

Enschede: en.-.ske-ede, ena (superlative) aske (free, independent) eder (beautiful): "Very independent and beautiful".

Goes: gus, gustoko (my favorite): "My favorite (town)".

Gouda: .go-uda, egoitzar (home) uda (summer): "Summer home".

Groningen: .gro-oni-inge-en., aguro (diligent) onibilera (prosperous) ingiratu (to get ready) eneganatu (to attract people):  "Diligent, prosperous and getting ready to attract people".

Heilo: .he-ilo, ihe-ilo, ihesari eman (to escape) ilordu (agony): "(We) escaped the agony".

den Helder: .de-en./, ede-ene/ihe-ela-ade-era: ederren (the most beautiful) ene (to attract, come to) ihesleku (shelter, harbour) elaberritsu (fond of the news) adeitsu (courteous) errezibimendu (welcome): "Come to the most beautiful harbor for the latest news and a courteous welcome".

Hengelo: .he-enge-elo, uher (malicious) engera (disgusting) elorritsu (crude): "Malicious, disgusting and crude". (Compare this  name with neighboring "Delden").

Hilversum:, ahi (I hope) ilezin (immortal) ebertar (Hebrew) errixee (common people) isuri (to inspire)  umiltasun (humbleness): "I hope that the immortal story of Jesus will inspire the common people to humbleness".

de Koog: de/.ko-og., ede-ako-oga, eder (beautiful) akorduan euki (to remember) ogasun (estate): "Beautiful estate (worth)  remembering".

Leerdam: .le-er.-.da-am., ale-ere-eda-am.: alegera (happily) eregu (indulging) edan (to drink) ameskoikeria (delirium): "Happily

      indulging in drinking (causes) delirium".

Medemblik: .me-ede-em.-.bli-ik., ome-ede-emo-obli-iku: omenezko (honorable) edesti (history) emon (to give) obligazio

     (obligation) ikusbera (vigilant): "Our honorable history obliges us to be vigilant".

Naarden:, nabarmen (obvious) arazotu (to be worried) adelatu (to prepare) enetan (always): "It is obvious that they are worried and always prepared".

Rekken:, arrerakor (kind) ekarri (to bring) aker (male goat) eni (to me): "Kind (of you) to bring the male goat to me".

Renkum: .re-en.-.ku-um., arren (please) ene (come to me) ekurutasun (peace of mind) umiltasun (humbleness): "Please come to me (to find) peace of mind and humbleness".

Staphorst: .sta-ap.-.ho-orst, esta-apa-aho-orrits: estatuburu (head of state) apailatu (to organize) ahogozagarri (delicious) orrits  (banquet): "The head of state organized a delicious banquet".

Utrecht:, uti-ire-eki-itu: utzi (to abandon, put a stop to) iresle (destruction) ekinalean (doing as much as possible) itundu (to make a treaty): "To put a stop to the destruction, do as much as possible to make a treaty".

Walcheren: adaption of: alkarren (together, mutual): "Togetherness".

Zwolle: .zu-ol.-.le, azu-ole-ele, azurruts (skeleton) oleazio (last rites) eleizakoak (Sacraments): "(He gave) the skeleton the last rites of the Sacraments".




          Certain letter combinations were used repeatedly by the Benedictines to make up a diversity of words, as can be seen in the following list -- gooien, hooien, looien, pooien, tooien, rooien -- which all use the Basque word oian meaning: forest or wood. There are many other such letter combinations.


Some "oian" words.


gooien (to throw) go-oien, ego-oian, egotzi (to throw) oian (wood):  Throwing wood.
hooien (to bring in the hay) .ho-oien, oho-oian, oholtza (high rack) oian (wood): High wooden rack.
looien (to tan leather) lo-oien, lo-oian, lortu (to get, obtain) oian (forest):  Obtain (oak bark) from the forest.
pooien (to booze) po-oien, opo-oian, oporrez (lazily) oian (in the forest):  Lazy in the forest.
tooien (to decorate) to-oien, to-oian, tontortu (to decorate) oian (wood):   Decorate the wood.
rooien (to uproot, clear away) ro-oien, erro-oian, errokatu (to settle down) oian (forest): Settling down in the forest.


Some "aik" Words.


          Every newly invented language was given some "characteristic" peculiarities and Dutch was assigned (beside the guttural "g") the "ij," pronounced something like "eye." Another letter combination, pronounced exactly the same way, is "ei," but Dutch shares this peculiarity with German. It is interesting to note that the "i" of "ij" is pronounced the English way instead of like in Latin, which may indicate that English grammarians had a hand in concocting this one. A few Dutch words with "ij" or "ei" and their origin follow:


Dutch: Origin: Comment:

eik (oak)                    aika (to grieve, moan):                    Oaks moan in the wind.
dijk (dike)                 daik, daike (he can have it):             He can have the land.
lijk (dead body)         lai-ik, laiatu (to spade) ik (you):      You do the spading.
rijk (rich) rai-ik,        arrai (kind) ik (you):                        You are kind.
tijk (cloth, tick)         ta -ik, taiaketa (to fit) ik (you):        To fit you.
slijk (mire, mud)      zla-aik., zula (hole) aiek (this):         This (mud) hole.
gelijk (equal)             gela-ik, gelakide (roommate) ik      (you): Your roommate.
bereik (within)           beraik, beraiek (themselves)          Among themselves.
kijken (to look)          kaik, kaiku (freak)                          Look at the freak.
sijk (filth,urine)         saik, saikume (vulture chick)          They are messy indeed.


          Then there is the boy's name "Haiko or Heiko" which came from aiko maikoka (making excuses). Maiko (dinner guest) became the Dutch girl's name "Maaike" etc. One interesting bit about Prof. R. "de Rijk", the internationally known, Basque-speaking professor in Leiden, whose name is derived from: "de Rai-ik": dei (called) arrai (kind) ik (you): "called: you are kind". A good Basque name to have, even if he didn't know it. Many Dutch names start with "van" meaning "from." The origin of "van" is ban (b and v are interchangeable) which is an abbreviation of the Basque word banatu meaning, "to disperse," "to separate from." Most Dutch names and words can be shown to have been wrought out of Basque; take Edo Nyland’s name", ni-land.: ni (my) landa (field, countryside). An early branch of the family in Gescher (West Phalia), Germany, still spells the name as Niland. Many Dutch names have been distorted so much that it is nigh impossible to trace their origin with any certainty, just like elsewhere in Western Europe.


Some "aide" Words.


beide (both), bai-aide, bai (yes) aide (family): Say yes for a family.

beiden (to linger) bai-aide-en.,
baizera (hesitation) aide (family) ene (my):
                                            My family hesitates.

heiden (heathen)   hai-aide-en,
haidur (malicious) aide (family) engainatu
                                (to deceive) maliciously deceiving family.

lijden (to suffer) lai-aide-en,
laida (insulted) aide (family) engainatu (to
                                    deceive):Insulted and deceived family.

mijden (to avoid)  mai-aide-en,
maiseatu (to gossip, slander) aide (family)
                    endekatu (degenerate): Gossiping and degenerate family.


rijden (to ride)  rai-aide-en, arraitu (to be happy) aide (family) endekoi
 (sociable, together): Family happily together.



Some "ust" Words.


buste (bust)   .bu-uste, aburu (opinion) uzte (to leave out, to refuse): Refuse an opinion.
gust  (barren*).gu-ust., igurtzi (to rub) ustu (to empty): Rub to empty.
justitia(justice).ju-usti-iti-iha, uju (shout of joy, pleased) uzti (omission) 
itiki (to discover, expose) ihardukitze (dispute): Pleased to expose the omission in the dispute.
kust                 (coast)  .ku-ust., ekuru (quietly) uste (hopeful): Quietly hopeful.
lust (delight)luzatu (to make it last):  Make it last.
rust  (rest)   .ru-uste, arrunt (simple) uste (trust):   Simple trust.
* not producing milk
Some "olde" Words.
bolder  (bitt), abonau (to approve of) oldez (instantaneous) 
                                         erremolke (towing): Give the signal to start towing.
folder  (brochure) .fo-olde-er., ebo-olde-er.,eboluzionatu (to develop,
                        organize) oldez (instantaneous) erabilgarbitasun (availability):
                                         Organize instantaneous availability.
kolder (giddiness) koldar (cowardly): Cowardly.
polder (diked-in area) .po-olde-er., oposatu (to obstruct) olde  (unrestricted, 
       natural) eraiketa (movement): Obstruct the natural movement (of the water).
soldeer (solder) .so-olde-er., oso (simple) olde (instantaneous) erremedio 
                                         (to repair): Simple instantaneous repair.
zolder  (ceiling) zo-olde-er., zohi (sod) oldei (moss) eraman (to carry):
                                         It carries the mossy sod.

          There is no way of determining where the basic rules for the creation of the Germanic languages were first laid down. The original powerhouse of Germanic language-creation was apparently in York, England, where Alcuin had been the undisputed master of the grammarians and language teachers. In 782, after many years in York, England, Alcuin had joined Charlemagne at his Palace school in Aachen where he functioned as headmaster and motivator, as he had done before in York (see  Benedictines). It may have been Alcuin, the master organizer, who oversaw the development of the basic structure and grammar of Dutch and German. What is more important is to realize that all three languages had been largely invented, and were not evolved naturally. The rules laid down by the Benedictines were generally adhered to in the creation of the vocabulary, but exactly what these rules were, is still to be researched.


          While studying the language, our modern academics realized that there was something involved they didn't know about and decided that the truth could be established scientifically by using classical comparative methodology. To accomplish this, our linguists proposed four criteria that were supposed to be diagnostic: 1) phonological correspondences, 2) shared vocabularies, 3) common grammatical features and 4) identical constructive particles. But the Benedictines, eminent linguists that they were, had been 1,500 years ahead of our academics and, using these same four "diagnostic criteria", had built a careful "genetic" relationship into the languages.  This had already been done with Sanskrit and the Romance languages where Latin, Spanish, French and Italian all are similarly "genetically" related. In addition, it would later be done to create the Slavic and the Finno-Ugric groups of languages. The work was so professional that linguists at the University of Pennsylvania were now able to "prove without a doubt" the existence of the "genetic" relationship, through "advanced computer analysis" (Johnson 1996).


          This contrived relationship between English, Dutch and German is best shown by analyzing a number of words which display an "obvious genetic" relationship to each other. An attempt has been made to identify the word (shown in CAPITALS), which appears closest to the Basque language, and it is assumed that this is the originally created word. The other two words were then supposedly touched up according to the rules laid down for each language. In case the words are alike, no words are capitalized. As usual the "b" and "v or f" are interchangeable, so are "c" and "k"; the sharp "sch" is always written as "x" in Basque.




BAKERY-bakkerij-Bäckerei: .ba-ake-eri, ebadura (slice of bread) akeita (coffee) eri (village):
                                        "A slice of bread with  coffee".

BEAKER-beker-Becher: .be-ake-er.,
uberka (water container) akeita (coffee) erion (to pour
                                        from): "Container to pour coffee from."

BEAR-beer-BäR: ber,
berbizi (to wake up): "(Run, he is) waking up."

bai zera (come away, come on). "Get away!"

BLOOD-bloed-Blut: .b.-.lo-od, eba-alo-odo, ebakidura (wound) alor (farmer) odolisurle (bloody):
                                         "the farmer's bloody wound."

blue-BLAAUW-BLAU: from blaust (blow on the eye), a "blue" eye, in English called a black eye.
                                        "A blue eye."

Boer-BOER(farmer)-bauer: buru (people); "People."

(on) board-AAN BOORD-AN BORD borda (ship's cabin); "Ship's cabin".

boat-boot-Boot: bota (to launch); To launch. or: bo-at, bota (to launch) atoitu (to drag): "Dragging
                                        to launch".

bow(for arrows)-BOOG-BOGEN boga (to bend; "To bend".

BOOK-BOEK-Buch: buka, bukatze (finishing?); "Are you finished?"

boom (floating timber)-boom (tree)-BAUM: .bau-um, abaunza (mass of branches) umo (ripe, full
                                        grown): "Mass of  full-grown branches."

break-BREEK-brechen: bre-ek, berre-eka, berregin (to re-do, to repair) ekinaldi (attempt):
                                        "Attempt to repair."

bread-brood-BROT: .bro-ot., abaro (shady place) otarre (basket): "Put the basket in a shady place".

bench-BANK-BANK: bank, banku (bench): "Bench".

BOSS-baas-böse (angry): boz (voice); "Voice".

butter-BOTER-Butter: .bo-ote-er., eboluzionatu (to produce) ote (perhaps) eragin (to churn):
                                        "Perhaps produce it by churning".

camp-kamp-Kamp: kanpo (outdoors); "Outdoors".

cantata-cantate-Kantate: .ka-an.-.ta-atu, ekarpen (contribution) anaitu (in unity) atalkide (member)
                                        atutxa (better world);  "In unity the members make a contribution toward a
                                        better   world".

card-kaart-KARTE karta (letter), "Letter."

cellar-KELDER-Keller: ke-eldar., kentze (to put away) eldarniagarri (delirious): "Put him away
                                        with the delirious ones".

CHALICE-schaal-Schale: txali-is, txalin (wooden dish) isurki (liquid): "Wooden dish for liquids".

chamber-KAMER-Kammer: kamar, errekamara (chamber): "Chamber". (erre comes from
                                        erretiroa: to retire to).

cheese-KAAS-Käse: ka-as., kario (expensive) asezin (craving):"Expensive craving".

chest-KIST-KISTE ki-ist., kinkila (drygoods) isterbabes (protection): "Protection for drygoods".

cloister-KLOOSTER-KLOSTER: .k.-.lo-oste-er, akordio (tradition) ologi (to feed oatbread)
                                        oste (large numbers of  people) erratu (to wander): "It is a tradition that
                                        oatbread is fed to large numbers of wandering people".

coach-koets-KUTSCHE kutsha, kutxa (box, chest): "(Large) box".

coast-KUST-Küste: ku-ust, eku-uste, ekuru (quietly) uste (hopeful):"Quietly hopeful".

come-KOMEN-kommen: komen, komeni (to be helpful). "Be helpful".

cook-KOK-Koch: kok (bellyfull); "Bellyfull".

corn-KOREN-Korn: .ko-oren; eko-oren; ekoitzi (to produce) orrenbeste (same amount again):
                                        "Produce the same amount  again".

CRUST-korst-Kruste: currust, kurrustu (crust): "Crust".

DARK-DONKER-dunkel: donker, donkeria (evil, bad); "Evil", bad. or: DARK: da-ark.,
                                        dardara (trembling) arkaitzulo (cave): "Trembling in the cave".

DAY-dag-Tag: dai, daigun (let's): "Let's go".

dead-DOOD-tot: .do-od., edo-odo, edonon (everywhere) odol (blood): "Blood everywhere".

door-DEUR-Tür: deu-eur, deuseztatu (to shut out) euriketa (rain storm): "Shut out the rainstorm".

double-dubbel-DOPPEL do-ope-el, odolberoko (spontaneous) opetsi (to offer) elexurikeria
                                          (adulation, applause):  "Spontaneously to offer applause, bis...bis!"

DRAGON-DRAAK-Drache: .dra-ago-on., dura-ago-on., adurra (to drool) ago (mouth)
                                          onargaitz (intolerable) Drooling from the mouth is intolerable". or from:

DRAAK: dura-ak., adurra (to drool) akarraldi (in anger): "He drools in anger".

(A)DRIFT-(OP) DRIFT-(Ab)trift: dri-ifi-it, iduri (it appears) ifili (to be) ito (to drown, go down):
                                        "It appears to be going  down". (ifili is now spelled

drunk-BEDRONKEN-betrunken:; obe-eda-aro-onki-in; obegipeko (favorite)
                                        edan (drink)  arrotzetxe (inn) onkide (round on the house) inor (everyone);
                                        "His favorite drink in the inn is the round on the house for everyone".

dumb-dom-DUMM:du-um, idu-ume, iduri (to appear) umekeria (childish): "Appears to be childish".

eat-ETEN-essen: eten (interruption). "Interruption".

evil-euvel-ÜBEL: ubel (purple), the favorite color of the Priestess. "Evil".

FAME-faam-famos: fama (fame); "Fame".

FAR-ver-fern: far, ifar (north): "North".

FAULT-fout-Fehler: falta (error); "Error".

feast-feest-FEST: fa-est., afa (happy) este (intestine): "Happy intestine".

fever-fieber-Fieber: .fi-ibe-er., abiatu (to begin) ibeni (to put on) erremedio (remedy); "Begin with
                                             ( putting on a remedy".

fiddle-FIDEEL (jovial)-fidel (jolly):, ifili (to be) idekoki (appropriately) ederton
elaberritsu  (jovial): "Be appreciative and appropriately jovial".

field-VELD-FELD: fa-eld., afa (happy) eldu (to ripen): "Happy to (see it) ripen".

FINGER-vinger-FINGER: .fi-ingir, .bi-ingir., ibili (to act) ingiratu (to be repugnant):
                                        "To act repugnant".

fiord-fjord-Fjord: fa-jor.-di, afa (happy) jori (abundance) di (place of), "Place of happy abundance".

FLAG-vlag-Flagge: f.-.lag, afa-alaig, afa (happy) alaigarri (comforting). "Happily comforting".

fleet-VLOOT-Flotte: flota (fleet); "Fleet".

folk-volk-Volk: bolk, boladak (group of people). "Group of people".

FRIEND-vriend-Freund: f.-.rend, afa (happy) arrendu (to call upon): "Happy to call upon".

fusilier-FUSELIER-Füsilier: fa-uz.-elir, afa (happy) uzkali (to vanquish) elikera (food); "Happily                                                 vanquishing food".

GARDEN-gaarde-Garten: jardun (to be busy with): (probably borrowed from France.) "To be
                                             busy with".

good-goed-GUT: gut, gutizia (desire, longing). "Desire"

gradual-GRADAAL (archaic)-graduell: .g.-.ra-ada-al; igo-ora-ada-al; igon (to grow tall)
                                            oraindanik (from now on)  ardaketa (branching out) aldaezinez
                                            (constantly); "From now on it will grow tall and branch out constantly".

grain-GRAAN-Grän: garan, garaun (grain); "Grain".

grey-GRIJS-grau: gris (grey); "Grey".

hand-hand-Hand: hand, handiera (extension): "Extention".

honey-honing-HONIG: ho-oni-ig., ahobeteko (tasteful) onizan (useful) igita (harvest); "Useful
                                            and tasty harvest".

house-huis-HAUS: hau-aus, haundi (large) ausarki (abundantly, more than enough): "More than
                                            large enough".

HEATHER-heide-Heide: heder, hederia (bundled together, broom); "Bundled together, broom".

king-KONING-König: kon-ing, konde (nobleman) ingira (disposition), "Nobleman's disposition".

kitchen-KEUKEN-Küche: .ke-euki-in; ikertu (to examine) eukitzaile (contents) inoizka (from
                                            time to time); "Examine the  contents from time to time".

knee-knie-Knie:, ika-ani, ikaradun (frightened) anitzetan (often). "Frightened often

lamb-lam-Lamm: la-am.-.b., ala-amai, alai (joyful) amaigabeko (endless) abeltegi (sheepfold):
                                            "Endlessly joyful in the  sheepfold".
lodi (overweight); "Overweight".

lick-LIKKEN-lecken: likin (sticky); "Sticky".

life-leven-LEBEN: .le-eban, ele (story) ebanjelio (gospels): "The story of the Gospels".

lust-lust-Lust: luzt, luzatu (to prolong, to stretch out): "To prolong, make it last".

MAGIC-magie-Magie: ma-agi-ik, ama (mother, Priestess) agindu (command) ikarakortu (to be
                                            afraid of): "Be afraid of  the Priestess' command".

MAID-meid-Maid: ma-aid., ama (mother's) aide (relative); "Mother's relative".

MARKET-markt-Markt: me-erkat, eme (woman) erkatu (to compare): "The women compare".

matey-MAAT-MAAT: ma-at, ama (mother's) ateka (bad moment); "Mother's bad moment".

meager-MAGER-MAGER: ma-ager, ama (mother's) ager (appearance); "Mother's appearance".

meal-MAAL-Mahl: ma-al, ama (mother's) altzokada (apron full); "Mother's apron full".

meteor-meteor-Meteor: me-ete-e.or, mendi (mountain) ete (perhaps) ehortziri (to bury): "Perhaps
                                            to bury itself in the mountain".

metal-metaal-Metal: me-eta-al, emendatu (to increase) eta (amount) al (power, strength): "To
                                            increase our strength".
midst-MIDDEN-Mitte: mi-iden, umi-iden,
umildu (to be humble) identifikatu (to identify, to detect):
                                            "Too humble to be identified".

milk-melk-Milch: .me-elk., emeta (gently) elki (to empty); "Empty gently".

moon-MAAN-Mond: ma-an, ama-anu, ama (mother) anu (fainting); "Mother's fainting".

mouse-muis-MAUSE: ma-aus, ama-auzo, ama (mother) auzogabetu (to move away): "Mother runs

NAIL-nagel-Nagel: nai-il, nai (wish) il (death): "Deathwish".

needle-naald-NADEL: .na-ade-el, anaia (brother) adelu (finery) elkarbatu (to stitch together): "Stitch
                                            the brother's finery together".

neighbour-buur-NACHBAR: nabari (obvious, in sight): "In sight".

NIGHT-nacht-Nacht: nait, naitaezko (inevitable): "Inevitable".

nose-neus-NASE: nasa, arnasa (to breathe): "To breathe".

powder-POEDER-Puder: .po-ede-er, opor (time off) ederreztatu (to beautify) ereti (occasion):
                                        "Take time off to beautify yourself for the occasion".

rest-RUST-Rast: ru-ust, arru-uste, arrunt (simple) uste (trust): "Simple trust".

red-rood-ROT: rot, arrot, arrotu (flushed): "Flushed face".

rider-ruiter-REITER: rai-tor, arrai (gentle) aitor (legendary patriarch), probably referring to
                                        St.Boniface. "Gentle legendary patriarch".

right-RECHT-RECHT: re-ekt, are-ekit, arren (please) ekite (to persevere): "Please persevere".

rime (hoarfrost)-RIJP (pron: raip)-reif: .rai-aip., arraitasun (brightness) aipa (to mention);
                                        "Mention the brightness".

SALMON-zalm-Salm: .za-al.-.mon, iza-ale-emo-on., izate (nature) alegera (rejoicing)
                emonkortasun (generosity) onarketa (welcome): "We rejoice in nature's welcome

salt-zout-SALTZE: saltze, gesaltze (to melt). "It melts".

scratch-KRAS-Kratzen: karras, karrask (scrape, scratch). "Scratch".

seldom-ZELDEN-selten: .zel-den, ezel-den; ezelan (somehow) denbora ediren (find time);
                                        "Somehow find time".

send-ZENDEN-senden: .zen-den., izen-denok; izeneztatu ((signed by) denok (all of us); "Signed by
                                        all of us".

ship-SCHIP-Schiff: ski-ip, aski-ipu, askitan (many times, often) ipurterre (restless, sleepless):
                                        "Many sleepless nights". In Dutch the captain of the "schip" is called a
                                        "skipper" which therefore still retains the original "k".

shit-skyt/SKOIT: (Friesian)-Scheisse: .sho-it., exo-ito, exorzizatu (cast out, eliminate) itoi (filth):
                                         "Eliminate filth".

short-kort-KURTZ: .ku-urtz, aku-urtz; akuilatu (to stimulate/bring about) urtzintz (sneeze); "To
                                        stimulate a sneeze".

sing-zingen-singen: ing, zingle (delicate): "Delicate (voice)".

singe-verzengen-SENGEN: .zeng, izengabetu (to discredit): "Discredited (burned his fingers)".

sink-ZINKEN-senken: .zin-ken; ezindu (incapacitated/unable) kendu (to avoid); "Unable to avoid".

sister-ZUSTER-schwester: zuzter, zuztertu (growing up fast): "Growing up fast".

soldier-SOLDAAT-SOLDAT: .so-olda-at; osoki (totally) oldar (brave) atxikimendu
                                        (faithful/devoted); "Totally brave and devoted".

soul-ZIEL-Seele: .zi-il, ezi-ilo; ezik (without) ilordu (hour of death); "Deathless".

stone-steen-STEIN: stai-in, estai (stay put) indar (strong, firm); "Stays firmly in place".

storm-storm-STURM: stu-uri-im., astundu (to become heavy) urizapparada (downpour)
                                        imitazio (repeat): "The downpour becomes heavy again".

street-STRAAT-Strasse: sta-arrat, asta (donkey) arrate (narrow passage): "Donkey's narrow

SUGAR-suiker-Zucker: su-uga-ar, isu-uga-ara, isuri (to flow) ugari (abundant) aratz (pure);
                                        "Flowing abundant and pure". Probably from zugar (elm and rowan
                                        tree) tapped for sap in the spring.

supple-soepel-n.a.: su-upe-el, isu-upe-ela, isuri (to inspire, to cause) upeohol (stave) elastiko
                                        (malleable): "To cause the stave to become malleable".

sweat-zweet-SCHWITZE: xu-itze, xukatu (to mop up) itzetik mustuka (quickly with the cloth).
                                        "Quickly mop up with the cloth".

SWELLING-zwelling-Schwellung: .se-ela-ali-ing., iseka egin (to make fun of) elastiko (bump/
alizan (noticeable/capable) ingurualdi (round); "Poking fun of a
                                        noticeable round bump".

thumb-duim-DAUME: dau-um., daukat (I have) umoretsu (fun). "Thumb up, I have fun".

tobacco-TABAK-TABAK: ta-bake, taldeko (of the group, tribe) bake (peace); (Smoking the peace
                                        pipe): "At peace with the tribe".

true-trouw-TRAU: ta-arau, ta (slapping) arau (discipline): "Slapping discipline".

under-ONDER-unter: ondar (bottom): "Bottom".

wall (wattle)-wal-Walle: wattle, atela (place of door opening): The "w" is usually meaningless. "Place
                                        of the door opening".

warp-WERP-Wurf: erp, erpintsu (pointed): "Pointed".

WATER-WATER-Wasser: ater, atera (to get). "Go get it".

weather-weder-WETTER: etor, etorki (expecting). "(What to) expect?"

weave-weef-WEBE: ebe, eba, ebaki (making decisions). "Making decisions".

wife-wijf-WEIB: Weibe, ai-be, ai (strong desire) be'ar (necessity, indispensable): "Strong desire for
                                        the indispensable".

wind-wind-Wind: ind, indar (strength, force). "Hard blow".

wood-hout-HOLTZ: oholtza ("pile of lumber"). Wood could come from ud- udare (pear wood).
                                        "Pear wood?"

WORD-woord-Wort: ord, ordainbide (promisory note): "Promise".

work-WERK-WERK: erk, erakarpen (contribution). "Contribution".

world-WERELD-Welt: ereld, eraldatu (to reform, to renew); the world was to be made over.
                                        "To reform, to be renewed".

yellow-geel-GELB: gelbera (hesitant, afraid): "Afraid".

YESTERDAY-gisteren-gestern: .ie-este-er.-.da-a.i, aie-este-ere-eda-ahi: aieneka (grieving)
                                        estemin (intestinal pain) eregu (indulging) edate (drinking) ahituezin
                                        (endless): "Grieving with intestinal pain after indulging in endless drinking".





          The Friesian language will be discussed elsewhere but included here is a list of the Friesian islands, of which there are more than 50, now divided between Nederland, Germany and Denmark. All the names of these islands can be translated with the use of the Basque dictionary, which confirms the same underlying language. Here are some:





Texel, the most westerly of all the islands: tek-sil, tekadun (having pods) silo (storage barn): "Storage barn for the pea and bean harvest". It must have been a high and prominent feature, clearly seen from the sea.

Vlieland, bili-landa, bili (to and fro) landa (region): "To and fro region?"

Terschelling, tera-schilin: tera (to, towards) txilin (tinkling bells, community pasture): "To the community pasture" where all the  animals have bells to ward off bad spirits and dangers, and also to be heard.

Ameland, ame-landa, amets (strong desire, longing for) landa (country-side, region): "I long for my country-side"; it still is a wonderful place to live.

Schiermonnikoog, txir-mon-nik-oga, txir (oyster) mondar (beach) nik (my) ogasun (property): "My private oyster beach".

Rottum, rot-um, arrotsu (proud) ume (child): "Proud little island".

Urk, (island in the middle of the Zuider Zee); it may have had the Friesian corpse-exposure facility for the departed. If so, here the bodies were exposed to the air so the soul would be released from the body and proper re-incarnation could take place. The bones were later bundled together and placed in a tribal tomb. This practice was continued by the R.C. church which to this day displays the bones of many martyrs and Saints in glass show-cases. In early "Christian" times, this holy site was  desecrated by "urka" (gallows).




Borkum, bor-kum, borda (hut) kuma (cradle), "Hut with a cradle".

Juist, ju-ist, jujatu (to judge, evaluate) istil (mud): "Judge, evaluate the mud".

Baltrum, bal-trum, bala (profusion) trumoi (thunder clap): "A profusion of thunder claps".

Langeoog, langa-og, langa (barrier, fence) ogasun (property): "Fenced property".

Spiekeroog, sop-iker-og, sopi (soppy wet) ikerketa (to explore) ogasun (property): "Soaking wet I explored the property".

Minsener, min-senar, min (in pain) senar (husband): "My husband is in pain".

Oldoog, old-og, oldar (attack) ogasun (property): "Attack on the property".

Scharhorn, ar-horn, xare (small net) horni (supplying food): "Small net for supplying food".

Eiderstadt, ei-dor-suta-d., ei (they say) dator (he is coming) sutargi (home, homefire) -da (for/to me): "They say he is coming

     home to me".

Süderoog, udur-og, sudur (sticking out, far out) ogasun (property): "Far out property".

Rantum, rant-um, arrantzu (large catch of fish) ume (child): "The child caught a lot of fish".





Jorsand, jor-sand, joritsu (rich) santujale (devout): "Rich and devout" (person).

Rømø, ro-mo, arro (proud, upright) modu (manner): "Proud/upright manner".

Koresand, korru-sant, korru (circle) santujale (devout, religious): "Holy (stone) circle?" Was this one of the many pre-Christian stone circles found all over the Atlantic coast of Europe and North Africa?

Kilsand, kil-sant, kili (gentle) santujale (devout): "Gentle and devout" (owner?)

Fanø, fano (horsepasture): "Horse pasture".

Skallingen, ska-al.-ling-en., sikatu (dry out) alik ondoen (as well as possible) lingirda (seaweed) -enetan (always): "Always dry out the seaweed as well as possible".

Ho Bugt, ho-bukat, aho (mouth) bukatu (inlet): "Mouth of the inlet (this is a channel)".

Blåvands huk, bla-band-huk, bila (searching for) banda (direction) hukiketa (point of contact): "Searching for direction to our point of contact".




Bolsward, bol-su-ard, bolada (occasion) su (fight, brawl) ardo (wine): "On occasion a drunken brawl".

Franeker, f.-.ran-neker, afa (happy) arran (bells) nekarazi (tired of): "I'm tired of the happily tingling bells".

Harlingen, (the main harbour): har-ling-en, harri (stones) lingirda (slime, seaweed) -enetan (always): "The stones are always slimey".

Lemmer, (harbor on the south-west coast), lemar (helmsman).

Ljouwert, L-jau-ert, (L:?) jaundu (to dominate) erd (center): "Dominates the center".

Marknesse, mark-neska, markatu (to wave) neska (unmarried young woman): "A young woman is waving".

Sneek, sine-ek, sinesgarri (testimony) ekinaldi (persistence): "Testimony to persistence".

Ulrum, uler-um, uler (to understand) ume (child): "I understand the child".

Wirdum, uhir-du-um, uhir (naughty) du (he has) ume (child): "She has a naughty child".

    Zurich, zurik (flatterer): "Flatterer".