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     [Note:  All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]




A review derived from the following:


Nyland, Edo.  2001.  Linguistic Archaeology: An
Introduction.   Trafford Publ., Victoria, B.C., Canada.

ISBN 1-55212-668-4. 541 p.


----Please CLICK on underlined categories for detail [to search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:







         It has been noted by Nyland (2001) that in 1825, the French Abbot Diharce de Bidassouet wrote in his "Histoire des Cantabres" that Basque was the original language spoken by the Creator. For that remark, he has been ridiculed ever since and yet he was not far from wrong. At about the same time the Basque priest Erroa maintained that Basque was the language spoken in the earthly paradise. For that his colleages treated him as a harmless lunatic, however, Erroa was so convinced he was right, that he appealed to the Bishop of Pamplona, who referred the appeal to the Chapter of the Cathedral of Pamplona. This august body considered the matter seriously and, after several months of deliberations, it solemnly gave judgment in Erroa's favor and publicly subscribed to his theory. (Gallop, p 4). Soon thereafter all minutes and other records of the proceedings mysteriously vanished, because such an endorsement just wasn't supposed to have happened.

          Abbot Dominique
Lahetjuzan (1766-1818) had also concluded that Basque was the language of the Garden of Eden. He showed that the names of the main characters in the Book of Genesis were all Basque in origin and had appropriate meanings. For this he was declared one of the most entertaining figures of the "theological age", with accompanying ridicule. But Lahetjuzan was right, as will be shown. This article is dedicated to his memory, so he may not be forgotten. These are only three of the many Basque speakers who have recognized Basque, not only in names and in words of the Bible, but also in hundreds of geographical names all over the world. All were ridiculed, or worse, for what they had observed, because the Roman Catholic church was not yet ready to admit that these names and words had been made-up out of a more ancient language, Saharan, to which Basque and Ligurian are closely related.  This language had been spoken in pre-Christian times in many parts of the world during the very early "Civilization of the Goddess", as Stanford University archaeologist, Dr. Marija Gimbutas, has named it.





          The method used to decode the Biblical names has been explained in detail by Edo Nyland,  A brief explanation follows:


           The linguists who made up these names used the vowel-interlocking formula, which means that a description of the person or word was made in Saharan, using words that start with vowel-consonant vowel (VCV). These first three letters of each word were then used to agglutinate into the new word like this: VCV-VCV-VCV-VCV but the vowels on either side of the hyphens had to be the same like this: VCV1-V1CV2-V2CV3-V3CV4-V4 etc. Every consonant in the name therefore stands for one whole word in the Saharan language. The very first vowel of the name is often not present. After the basic agglutination was done, several of the vowels were removed. If there are missing vowels in a VCV such as in "en." (as in "amen"), all five possibilities, ena, ene, eni, eno and enu must be tried, using the VCV dictionary. Most of the words thus obtained can be discarded immediately because they don't fit in and make no sense; the correct word combination usually will stand out. Retracing the monk's thought processes is no exact science.  Therefore, it is surprising to see how reliable the results can be that are obtained most of the time, especially with longer words. This is best shown with a few examples:


amen, ame-en., ame-ene,

ame          ame             ametsetsi          to idealize
en.            ene            
ene                      exclamation

Exclamation of idealization.


Jezebel, je-eze-ebe-el., je-eze-ebe-ele,

je           je              jentil                 pagan, gentile         
eze        eze          
ezetsiz              disdainful
ebe       ebe          
ebertar              Hebrew
el.         ele           
eleizakoak        sacraments

(This) pagan is disdainful of the Hebrew sacraments.


A name assembled with the same first word is:

Jerusalem, je-eru-usa-ale-em., je-eru-usa-ale-ema,

je           je                jentil                    pagan, gentile
eru         erru           
errukigabe         cruel
usa         usa            
usadio                custom
ale         ale            
alegia                   fake
em.        ema          
emankortasun    fertility


Cruel pagan custom (to achieve) fake fertility.

          This must refer to the voluntary sacrifice of a young man, an annual practice in the Goddess religion, which obviously had taken place in Jerusalem and a few other places of religious significance. The young man's title in the Bible is "Tammuz" (Ezekiel 8:14), from the Basque word damuz (regretfully). The last Tammuz may have been Jesus, as the name Jerusalem may suggest. If this is true Jesus cannot have been a Jew, but may have been a a gentile instead, as the decoding of his name also suggests:

The name Jesus also starts with "je", like Jezebel and Jerusalem.

Jesus Christ, je-ezus kri-ist,

je            jentil                   gentile, pagan
ezustelkor          incorruptible
kriatzaile            God
istun                    speaker

Incorruptible Gentile; God's speaker.


          As Jesus also went voluntarily to his death, this could be an indication that Jesus was a Gentile. It is possible that the word Jew was coined to match the first letters of Jesus' name, to make it look as if he were a Jew.


          Four more words relating to the human sacrifice are:

apocalypse,, apo-oka-ali-ipu-usa,

apo          apo            apokeria           filthy deed
oka          oka           
okastagarri      disgusting
ali            ali              
alienazio          the killing of a person
ipu             ipuinezko          legendary
.se           usa            
usario               tradition

"The disgusting and filthy killing of a person in legendary tradition".


Subiaco (the mother-house of all the Benedictines), .su-ubi-ako, isu-ubi-ako:

.su          isu             isurikatu              to waste a life
ubi          ubi            
ubil                       whirlpool
ako         ako           
akorduan euki    to remember

"Remember the waste of life in the whirlpool".


               This name became the rallying cry of the Benedictine monks who established the first monasteries in western Europe.


The name "Albion", also appears to fit in this group of names:

al.          alu             alukeria           repulsive action, deed
.bi          ubi            
ubil                    whirlpool
on.         ona          
onartezin          unacceptable 

"The repulsive deed in the whirlpool is unacceptable".


          The most dramatic of the Tammuz sacrificial deaths took place, not in the Mediterranean, but in the Whirlpool of Corrivreckan, located 50 miles west of Glasgow, Scotland. It was the only such annual sacrificial place in NW Europe and the ordeal was attended by thousands of people coming from as far away as Norway, Denmark, the Baltic region, Scotland and Ireland, even Russia. The island where they gathered used to be called "Hinba" from hinbasio (invasion) (see Adwoman ). This name referred to the many people who annually arrived like an invasion to attend the sacrifice and to watch the life struggle of the young man in the coracle, which was anchored in the whirlpool, all observers watching in dead silence. From the high viewpoint at the far north tip of the island everyone could observe the tragedy. The cable with which the boat was tied to the anchor stone was woven out of the long braids that young women cut off for this purpose. It was a great honor to have your hair selected, and to this day, many women in NW Europe carefully save their long braids as long as they live for this purpose, even though the reason for this has long been forgotten. When the Benedictines arrived, the island's name was quickly changed from Hinba to Jura, juramendu (cursed), from the most holy island to "The Cursed Isle" and a very determined, and almost successful, effort was made by the church to eliminate all evidence and memories of this happening. To this day tourists visiting the nearby Isle of Iona are told that 60 "kings" of Norway, Scotland, Ireland etc. are buried in the sandy graveyard by the restored monastery. Martin Martin, in his book "The Hebrides", writes in 1695: "They can boast that they are honored with the Sepulchers of eight Kings of Norway, who at this day, with forty eight Kings of Scotland, and four of Ireland lie entombed in the Isle of Iona; a Place fam'd for some peculiar Sanctity". It is likely that there are many, many more. None of the stone grave markers are now visible, having all been destroyed or buried by the monks, but the slab-stone coffins may still be in the ground.


             The following example is made of two words, separated by an apostrophe, indicating a break in the vowel-interlocking.

                      Halle'luja, .ha-al.-.le 'lu-uja, aha-ala-ale 'lu-uja:

.ha          aha            ahalguzti           the Almighty
ala             alaiki                 happily
.le/          ale            
alegera             rejoicing
'lu           'lu             
luzatu                to prolong
uja          uja            
uja                    shout of joy


Happily rejoicing in the Almighty (with) prolonged shouts of joy.

          Some Biblical words, like this one, are actually two words because the vowel linking is interrupted. The spot should be indicated by an apostrophe.  However, over the centuries many of these have been lost because translators didn't know what they represented. This oversight makes translation more of a challenge.





          Starting at the beginning of Genesis, Nyland organized the names according to the numbering in the Bible.  The following results were obtained by using the aforementioned system:

2:11. Pishon, from pixontzi (chamberpot): "Chamberpot".

2:11. Havilah, (no logical translation at this time).

2:13. Gihon, .gi-iho-on., agi-iho-ona; aginerakuste (threat) ihortziri (thunder) onago (closer): "The thunder threatens to come closer".

2:13. Cush, .ku-ux., iku-uxu; ikusbide (scenery, countryside) uxu (cry of happiness): "A cry of happiness for the scenery".

2:14. Tigris, .ti-ig.-.ri-is., ati-iga-ari-isu; itxi (abandon) igarobide (crossing) arriskatsu (dangerous) isurazkar (fast flowing): "Abandon your dangerous crossing of the fast flowing river".

2:14. Assyria,, ase-esi-iri-iha; aserrez (angrily) esinguratu (to surround) iri (city) ihabali (frightened): "The angrily surrounded the frightened city".

2:15. Euphrates, eup.-.h.-.ra-ate-es., eupa-ahi-ira-ate-ese; eupa (call, calling out) ahi/ai (strong desire, desperate) iragaile (ferryman) aterbetu (to shelter against, to escape from) esetsi (battle, attack):"Desperately calling out for the ferryman to escape from the attack".

3:17. Adam, ada-am., ada-ama; adarra sartu (to deceive) amarruki (cunningly): "(He was) cunningly deceived".

3:20. Eva, eba, from ebasle (thief): "Thief". She stole the apple and, ever since, women have suffered for her misdeed.

3:24. Cherubim, xe-eru-ubi-im., xe-eru-ubi-ima; xedatu (to dispose of) errukigabe (cruel) ubil (whirlpool) imagina (idol, prince of light): "The cruel disposal of the prince-of-light in the whirlpool". The moment of the resurrection of the drowned prince's soul was observed by the crowd as a light phenomenon shining from the cave, where the priestess was with the body. (printz means ray of light).

4:1. Cain, from kahin (dowsing rod or divining rod): "Diviner". The word kahin has been lost from the Basque vocabulary, but it was retained in Berber and Arabic.

4:2. Abel, abe-el., ebe-ele; abeldun (cattleman) eleienda (legend): "The legend of the cattleman".

4:16. Nod, no-od., no-ode; noa (I am going) odeiertz (horizon, far away): "I am going far away".

4:17. Enoch, eno-ok., eno-oka; enoradun (covered with warts) okaztagarri (disgustingly): "Disgustingly covered with warts".

4:18. Mehuja'el, .me-ehu-uja'el., ame-ehu-uja'ele; amerikak egin (to make a fortune) ehunsaltzaile (textile merchant) uja (shout of joy) ele (story): "Story of the textile merchant who shouted for joy when he made a fortune".

5:18. Methusha'el,, ame-ete-ehu-uxa-ele; amerikak egin (to make a fortune) etekin (profit) ehunsatzaile (textile merchant) usain (suspicion) ele (story): "The story of the textile merchant who made a fortune is suspicious".