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                                                                                    Mycology Glossary


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Words beginning with:  A,   B,   C,   D,   E,   F,   G,   H,   I,   J,   K,   L,   M,  


                               N,  O,   P,   Q,   R,   S,   T,   U,   V,   W,   X,   Y,   Z




Key to symbols: Gr. = Greek; Icel. = Icelandic; L. = Latin; ME. ; = Middle  English; NL. := New Latin.




<A words>


Acervulus (pl. acervuli; L. acerous = heap, dimin. form): a mat of hyphae giving rise to short conidiophores closely packed together forD1ing a bedlike mass. Characteristic of the Melanconiales.


Achlorophyllous (G~. a = not + chlaros = green + Phyllon = leaf): lacking  chlorophyll.


Aeciospore (Gr. aikia = injury + spotos = seed, spore): a binucleate spore produced in an aecium.


Aecium (pI. aĞia; Gr. aikia = injury): a structure consisting of binucleate hyphal cells, with or without a peridium, which produce spore chains consisting of aeciospores alternating with disjunctor cells, by the successive, conjugate division of the nuclei.


Aethalium (pl. aethalia; Gr. aethalos = soot): a rather large, sometimes massive, generally cushion-shaped fructification of some Myxomycophyta.


Akaryote (Gr. a = not + karyon '= nut, nucleus): a phase in the life cycle of the. Plasmodiophorales during  which the nucleoplasm loses its affinity for stains


Alga (pl. algae; L. alga." sea\veed): anyone of a group. of thallus plants containing chlorophyll.


Amphitrichous. (Gr. amPhi = both +thrix .;, hair): refers to a bacterial cell with a tuft of flagella at each pole


Anisogamous planogametes (Gr. a == not + ;sos =: equal + gamos = marriage; Planetes := wanderer + gametes = husband): motile gametes which are morphologically similar but which differ in size


Anisogamy (Gr. a = not + isos ::= equal + gamos = marriage, union): union  of planogametes which are morphologically similar but which differ in size.


Annulus (pl. annuli; 1.. annulus '= ring): the ring found on the stem of certain species of mushrooms. Remnant of the inner veil.


Antheridium (pl. anthttidia; Gr. Antheros = flowery + .idion, a dimin. suffix); a male gametangium


Antherozoid (Gr. antheros = flowery + zodion ~ little animal): the motile male gamete of the Monoblepharidales


Antibiotic (Gr. anti = against + bios = life): a substance produced by a living organism, which injures or kills another living organism.


Aplanetic (Gr. a = not + Planetes = wanderer): nonmotile.


Aplanospore (Gr. a = not + planetes = wanderer + sporos = seed, spore): a nonmotile spore


Apothecium (pI. apothecia; Gr. apotheke = storehouse): an open ascocarp


Archicarp (Gr. atche = beginning + karpos = fruit): the initial stage of a fruiting body.


Arthrospore (Gr. arthron ;; joint + sporos = seed, spore): a spore resulting from the fragmentation of a hypha. Also called oidium.


Ascocarp (Gr. askos;; .sac + karpos = fruit): a fruiting body containing asci


Ascogenous hypha (Gr. askos = sac + gennao = I give birth + hyphae = web):a specialized hypha which gives rise to one or more asci


Ascogonium (pI. ascogonia; Gr. Gskas::: sac + gennao =.1 give birth): the female gametangium of the Ascomycota


Ascospore (Gr. askos = sac + sporos = seed, spore): a spore, which results from meiosis, borne in an ascus


Ascus (pI. asci; Gr. askos ;; sac): a structure generally containing a definite number of ascospores-typically eight-which is usually formed as a result of karyogamy and meiosis. Characteristic of the Ascomycota.


Aseptate (L. ab = away + septum = hedge): lacking cross walls


Asexual (L. ab = away + sexus = sex): reproduction not involving union of two nuclei


Aspergillosis (Aspergillus = a genus of Ascomycota): one of a group of diseases of animals and humans caused by various species of Aspergillus.


Asporogenous (Gr. a = not + sporos = seed, spore + gennoo = I give birth): non-spore forming.


Autoecism (Gr. autos = self, i.e., the same + oikos = home): the ability of a parasitic fungus to complete its entire life cycle on a single host species. Used particularly for certain rusts.


Azygospore (Gr. a = not + zygos =' yoke + sporos = seed, spore): a zygospore, which develops parthenogenetically.


<B words>


Bacillus (pl. bacilli; L. bacillum, dim in. for stick): a rod shaped bacterium


Bacteriology (Gr. bakterion = small rod + logos = discourse): the science, which treats of bacteria.


Basidiocarp (Gr. basidion = small base, basidium + karpos = fruit): a fruiting body, which bears basidia


Basidiospore (Gr. basidion = small base + sporos  = seed, spore): a spore borne on the outside of a basidium, resulting from karyogamy and meiosis


Basidium (pl. basidia; Gr. basidion = a small base): a structure bearing on its surface a definite number of basidiospores-typically four-which are usually formed as a result of karyogamy and meiosis


Binomial (L. bi = two + nomen == name): the scientific name of an organism. It is composed of two names, the first designating the genus, and the second the species.


Bipolarity (L. bi =two + Gr. poloJ = pole): a condition of sexual compatibility in certain Basidiomycota in which two basidiospores of each basidium are of one strain, and two are of another.


Blastospore (Gr. blaslos = bud, shoot + sporos = seed, spore): an asexual spore formed by budding


Budding (ME. budde = bud): the production of a small outgrowth (bud) from a parent cell. A method of asexual reproduction.


<C words>


Capillitium (pl. capillitia; L. capillus = hair): sterile, thread-like structures present among the spores in the fruiting bodies of many Myxogastres and Gasteromycetes


Capsule (L. capsula = a small box): a halo-like, gelatinous or mucilaginous sheath around certain bacterial cells


Chlamydospore (Gr. chlamys = mantle + sporos :: seed, spore): a hyphal cell, enveloped by a thick cell wall, which eventually becomes separated from the parent hypha and behaves as a resting spore


Clamp connection: a bridge-like hyphal connection characteristic of the secondary mycelium of many Basidiomycota


Cleistothecium (pl. cleistothecia; Gr. kleistos :: closed + theke = case): a completely closed ascocarp


Coccus (pl. cocci; Gr. kokkos = grain, kernel): a spherical bacterium


Coenocytic (Gr. koinos = common + kylos = a hollow vessel): non-septate; referring to the fact that the nuclei are embedded in the cytoplasm without being separated by cross-walls. i.e., th(: nuclei lic in a common matrix


Colony (L. colonia = a settlement): a group of individuals of the same species living in close association. In fungi, the term usually refers to n1any hyphae growing out of a single point and forming a round or globose thallus.


Columella (pl. columellae; L. columen = column): a sterile structure within a sporangium or other fructification; often an extension of the stalk


Compound oosphere (Gr. oon = egg + sphaira = sphere): .an oosphere with many functional gamete nuclei.


Conidiophore (conidiophore,  conidia) (Gr. konis = dust + Phoreus = bearer): a specialized hypha bearing conidia.


Conidium (pl. conidia, Gr. konis = dust + -idion, dimin. suffix): a spore formed asexually, usually at the tip or side of a hypha


Conjugate nuclear division (L. con == with + jugum = yoke): the simultaneous division of the two nuclei in a dikaryon, giving rise to four daughter nuclei. These generally become separated by a septum into two cells, the sister nuclei migrating into different daughter cells.


Context (L. contexere = to weave together): the fibrous tissue which makes up the body of the pileus in the Basidiomycota.


Coprophilous (Gr. kopros = dung + Philein = to love): growing on dung.


Cortina (pl. cortinae; L. cortina = curtain): a, cobwebby veil hanging from the margin of the cap of certain mushrooms.


Cystidium (pl. cystidia; Gr. kystis = bladder + .idion, dimin. s\lffix): a large sterile structure in the hymenium of a Basidiomycete


<D words>


Damping-off: a disease of seedlings which causes them to rot at the soil level and to fall over.


Dermatophyte (Gr. derma = skin + phyton = plant): anyone of several fungi which cause skin diseases.


Dikaryon (NL. di = two + Gr. karyon ~ nut, nucleus): a pair of closely associated nuclei, each \lS\lally derived from a different parent cell.


Dikaryotic (NL. di = two + Gr. karyon =nut, nucleus): pertaining to a cell wliich contains a dikaryon


Dioecious (NL. di = two + Gr. oikos = home): refers to species in which the sexes are segregated in different individuals (Figure 99). The use of this

term is often restricted to higher plants.


Diplanetic (Gr. dis = twice + planetes = wanderer): refers to a species which produces two types of zo&pores and in which two swarming periods occ\\r


Diplococcus (pl. diplococci; Gr. diplous = double + kokko$ = grain. kernel):an arrangement of spherical bacterial cells in pairs


Diploid (Gr. diplou.f'= double): containing the double (2n) number of chromosomes.


<E words>


Egg (Icel. egg = egg): female gamete


Endospore (Gr. endos = inside + sporos ;: seed, spore): a resting stage produced by some bacteria, which is resistant to unfavorable conditions


Epibasidium (pl. epibasidia; Gr. ePi = upon + basidion = small base): the upper portion of the basidial apparatus of the HemiBasidiomycota


Epigean (Gr. epi = upon + ge ;: earth): above the ground. Epiphytotic (Gr. epi :=; upon + phyton ;: plant): a widespread occurrence of a plant disease.


Epithecium (pl. epithecia; Gr. ePi = upon + theke :; a case): a layer of tis- sue on the surface of the hymenium of an apothecium, formed by the union of the tips of the paraphyses over the asci.


Epizootic (Gr. ePi = upon + %oon ~ animal): a widespread occurrence of an animal disease.


Eucarpic (Gr. t'u:=; good + karpos ;: fruit): forming reproductive struct\Ites  on certain portions of the thallus, the thallus itself continuing to perform its somatic functions.


Excipulum (pl. excipu1a; NL. excipulum = receptacle): the outer layer of the hypothecium


<F words>


Facultative parasite (L. facultas = ability; Gr. parasitos = table mate): an organism capable of infecting another living organism or of growing on dead organic matter, according to circumstances.


Facultative saprobe (L. facultas = ability; Gr. sapros = rotten + bios == 1ife}: an organism capable of growing on dead organic matter, or of infecting another living organism, according to circumstances.


Fairy ring: a ring of mushrooms on the ground representing the periphery of mycelial growth of a Basidiomycot.


Fertilization tube (L. fertilis = fertile): a tube originating from the male gametangium and penetrating into the female through which the male gametes (nuclei) are transferred.


Fission (L. fissio = splitting): the splitting of a cell into two cells directly.


Flagellum (pl. flagella; L. flagellum= whip): a hair.. whip-, or tinsel-1ike structure which serves to propel  a motile cell.


Fragmentation (L. frangere = to break): the segrnentation of the thallus into a number of fragments each of which is capable of growing into a new individual. A method of asexual reproduction.


Fructification (L. fructus = fruit): any fungal structure that contains or bears spores.


Fruiting body: see fructification.


Fungus (pL fungi; L. fungus = mushroom): One of the achlorophyllous thallophytes whose somatic structures are usually filamentous and branched fungi have cell walls and demonstrable nuclei. They reproduce typically both by sexual and asexual means.


Funiculus (pl. funiculi; I.. funiculus = a small cord): a thin cord by means of which the peridioles of some Nidulariales are attached to the basidiocarp which bears them.


<G words>


Gamettangial contact (Gr. gametes = husband + angeion = vessel): a method of sexual reproduction in which two gametangia come in contact but do not fuse. The male nucleus migrates through a ~re or fertilization tube into tile female gametangium


Gametangial copulation (Gr. gametes:: husband + angeion = vessel)~ a method of sexual reproduction in which two gametangia 0]' their protoplasts fuse and give rise to a zygote which develops into a resting spore


Gametangium (pl. gametangia; Gr. gametes:: husband + angeion :0: vessel): a structure which contains gametes.


Gamete. (Gr. gametes:::: hll.sband, sex cell): a differentiated sex cell or a sex nucleus wl1ich fuses with another in sexual reproduction


Gametothallus (pl. gametothalli; Gr. gamctes = husband + thallos = shoot}: a thallus which produces gametes, as opposed to a sporothallus


Gemma (PI; gemmae; L. Gemma = bud): a thick-walled cell similar to a chlamydospore


Genus (pl. genera; L. genus = race): a taxonomic category that includes a number of species. The genus name (generic name) is the first name in a binomial.


Gleba (pl. glebae; L gleba  = clod): the inner, fertile portion of the fruiting body of the Gasteromycetes.


<H words>


Haploid (Gr. haplous = simplex): containing the reduced (n) number of chromosomes.


Hapteron (pl. haptera; Gr. hapto = I touch): a mass of highly adhesive hyphae that form an attachment organ at the base of the funicular cord of the Nidulariaceae.


Haustorium (pl. haustoria; L. haustor = drinker): absorbing organ originating on a hypha of a parasite and penetrating into a cell of the host. Most often associated with obligate parasites, but also produced by some facultative parasites.


Helotism (Gr. heilotia = serfdom): the name applied to the relationship of the alga to the fungus in a lichen, by those who do not concede that it is strict parasitism.


Hermaphroditic (Gr. Hermes = the messenger of the gods, symbol of the male sex + Aphrodite = the goddess of love, symbol of the female sex): refers to species in which both male and female sex organs are produced by each individual


Heteroecism (Gr. hetero$ == other, different + oikos ""home, i.e., host): the necessity of two host species for the completion of the life cycle of certain parasitic fungi.


Hcterogametangia (sing. heterogametangium; Gr. heteron = other, different + gametes = husband + angeion = vessel): male and female gametangia that are distinguishable morphologically


Heterogametes (Gr. heteros = other, different + gametes = husband): male and female gametes that are distinguishable morphologically


Heterokaryotic (Gr. heteron = other, different + karyon = nut, nucleus): containing nuclei of different strains.


Heterothallic (Gr. heteros = other, different + thallos = shoot, thallus): According to one version: refers to a species consisting of self-sterile (self. incompatible) individuals requiring therefore the union of two compatible thalli for sexual reproduction, regardless of the possible presence of both male and female organs on the same individual. According to another version: refers to a species in which the sexes are segregated in separate thalli, two different thalli being required for sexual reproduction.


Heterothahallism (Gr. heteros = other, different + thallos = shoot, thallus): the condition exemplified by heterothallic species.


Holobasidium (pl. holobasidia; Gr. halon = entire + basidion = a small base): a simple, club-shaped structure in which karyogamy and meiosis occur, which bears basidiospores on its surface


Holocarpic (Gr. holo~ = entirely + kapos = fruit): refers to an organism whose thallus is entirely converted into one or more reproductive structures.


Holozoic (Gr. holos = entirely + oikos = of animals): ingesting food in the form of solid particles.


Homothallic (Gr. homo = same + thallos = shoot. thallus): refers to fungi in which sexual reproduction lakes place in a single thallus which is, therefore, (essentially self-compatible.


Homothallism (Gr. homo = same + thallos = shoot. thallus): the condition exemplified by homothallic species.


Host (L. hospes = one who receives a stranger as his guest): a living organism harboring a parasite.


Hyaline (Gr. hyalinos:  made of glass, i.e., colorless): colorless, transparent.


Hymenium (pl. hymenia; Gr. hymen = membrane\: a fertile layer consisting of asci or basidia


Hyperplasia (Gr. hyper: over + plasis. = molding, formation): excessive multiplication of cells; abnormal rate of cell division.


Hypertrophy (Gr. hyper = over t trophe = food): excessive enlargement of cells.


Hypha (pl. hyphae; Gr. hyphe = web): the unit of structure of the fungi; a tubular filament


Hyphal body (Gr. hyphe = web): a fragment of the mycelium of the Entomophthorales


Hypobasidium (pl. hypobasidia; Gr. hypo == under + basidion = small base): the basal portion of the basidial apparatus of the Hemibasidiomycetes


Hypogean (Gr. hypo = under + ge =earth): growing below the ground.


Hypothallus (pl. hypothalli; Gr. hypo = under + thallos = shoot, thallus): a thin, often transparent deposit at the ba.~e of the fructifications of some Myxogastres.


Hypothecium (pl. hypothecia; Gr. hypo = under + theke = case): the thick fleshy portion or main body of an apothecium


<I words>


Indusium (PI. indusia; L. indusium:: undergarment): a skirt-like structure hanging from the receptacle of the expanded fruiting body of Dictyophora (one of the stinkhorns) Inner veil: the hyphal membrane that covers the gills of a young mushroom.


Isogametangia (sing. isogametangium; Gr. ison = equal + gametes = husband + angeion = container): gametangia, presumably of opposite sex which are indistinguishable morphologically


Isogamete. Gr. isos = equal + gametes = husband): gametes, presumably of opposite sex, which are indistinguishable morphologically


Isoplanogametes (Gr. isos; equal + planetes = wanderer + gametes == husband): motile gametes, presumably of opposite sex, which are indistinguishable morphologically


<J words>


<K words>


Karyogamy (Gr. karyon = nut, nucleus + gamos = marriage, union): the fusion of two nuclei


<L words>


Lamella (pl. lamellae; L. lamina = plate, dimin. form): a plate-like structure (gill) on which some Basidiomycota produce their basidia


Lichen (Gr. lichen = lichen): a combination of an alga and a fungus in which the two components are so interwoven as to form what appears to be a single individual.


Locule (L. loculus :: a little place): a cavity within a stroma


Lophotrichous (Gr. lophos = hill + thrix = hair): refers to a bacterial cell with a tuft of polar flagella at one pole


<M words>


Macroconidium (pl. macroconidia; Gr. makrott: long -t- kottis:: dust +.jdion, dimin. suffix): a conidium, as distinguished from a microconidium


Macrocyclic (Gr. makros = long + kyklos :: circle, cycle): long cycled. Applied to those species of rusts that produce one or more types of binucleate spores in addition to teleutospores.


Medium (pl. media; L. medium = intermediate): sub-stratum of a balanced chemical composition employed in the laboratory for growing microorganisms. Media may be used in the liquid state or may be solidified with agar, gelatin, or other solidifying agents.


Meiosis (Gr. meiosis = reduction): a pair of nuclear divisions in quick succession, one of which is reductional. Four haploid nuclei are produced as a result of meiosis.


Meristogenous (Gr. Meros = part + gennao = I give birth): refers to the origin of a fruiting body from the division of a simple cell or of adjacent cells of the same hypha


Meront (Gr. meros = po;tion): a portion of anything, but more especially of a splitting plasmodium (schizont) of the Plasmodiophorales


Micrococcus (Gr. mikros == small + kokkos = grain, kernel): an arrangement of spherical bacteria either as isolated, single cells or as sheets one cell thick, the latter resulting from cell division in two planes


Microconidium (pl. microconidia; Gr. mikron: small + konis :. dust + .idion, dimin. suffix): small conidium which often acts as a spermatium


Microcyclic (Gr. mikros :: small + kyklos = circle, cycle): short-cycled. Applied to those species of rusts that produce no binucleate spores other than teleutospores.


Micron (pl. microns or micra: Gr. mikron = small): a unit of measurement equal to 0.001 mm. or approx. 1/25,000 inch.


Monokaryotic (Gr. monon : alone, single + karyon = nut, nucleus): containing a single nucleus.


Monophyletic (Gr. monon = alone, single + Phylon = stock, race): of a single line of descent.


Monoplanetic (Gr. monvs = alone, only + planetes = wanderer): refers to a species which produces only one type of zoospore and in which there is but one swarming period.


Monotrichous (Gr. mane 0: alone, single + thrix = hair): refers to a bacterial cell with a single polar flagellum


Mycelium (Mycelium) (pl. mycelia; Gr. mykes = mushroom, fungus): mass of hyphae constituting the body (thallus) of a fungus.


Mycology (Gr. mykes = mushroom, fungus + logos =: discourse): the science that treats of fungi.


Myxamoeba (pl. myxamoebae; Gr- myxa = slime + amoebe = change): an amoeboid cell, particularly one of the Myxomycophyta


<N words>


<O words>


Obligate parasite (L. obligate = to bind; Gr. parasitos = table mate): an or-ganism \vhich can obtain food only from living protoplasm. Obligate parasites cannot be grown in culture on non-living media


Obligate saprobe (L. obligare ,: to bind; Gr. sapros = rotten + bios = life): an organism which must obtain its food from dead organic matter, and is incapable of infecting another living organism.


Oidiophore (Gr. oidion: small egg + phorcus = bearer): a hypha whic11 fragments into oidia from the tip toward the base


Oidium (pl. oidia; Gr. oidion = small egg): a thin-walled, free, hyphal cell derived from the fragmentation of a somatic hypha into its component cells, or from an oidiophore. It behaves as a spore or as a spermatium.


Oidization (Gr. oidion = small egg): the union of an oidium with a somatic hypha resulting in the dikaryotization of the latter..


Oogamous (Gr. oon = egg + gamos = marriage, union): refers to 'a type of fertilization in which two heterogametangia corne in contact, and the contents of one flow into the other through a pore or tube


Oogonium (pl. oogonia; Gr- oon = egg + gennao = I give birth): a female gametangium ontaining one or more eggs.


Oosphere (Gr. oon = egg + sphaira = sphere): a large, naked, non-motile, female gamete


Oospore (Gr. oon = egg + sporos = seed, spore): a thick-walled spore which develops from an oospherc through either fertilization or parthenogenesis


Operculum (pl. opercula; L. operculum = lid): a hinged cap on a sporangium or an ascus


Ostio1e (L. ostiolum = little door): a neck-like structure in an ascocarp, lined with periphyses, and terminating in a pore. Also the opening of a pycnidium


<P words>


Paraphyses (sing. paraphysis; Gr. para = beside + physis ,: a being, a growth): sterile, basally attached structures in a hymenium


Parasite (Gr. parasitos = eating beside another; from para = beside + sitos = \'{heat, fond): an organism that lives at the expense of another, usually invading it and causing disease.


Parthenogenesis (Gr. parthenos = virgin + genesis = birth): the development of the normal product of sexual reproduction from the female gamete alone.


Pellicle (L. pellis = skin, dimin. form): a skin-like aggregation of bacteria or yeasts on the surface of liquid media. Any surface, skin-like growth.


Penicillus (pI. penicilli; L. penicillum = small brush): the conidiophore of tile genus Penicillium


Peridiole (Gr. peridion = small leather pouch + L -alum = dimin. suffix): the glebal chamber of the Nidulariales which has a hard, waxy wall of its own; contains the basidiospores, but acts as a propagating unit as a whole


Peridium (pl. peridia; Gr. peridion "" small leather pouch): the outside covering or wall of a fructification.


Periphyses (sing. periphysis; Gr. peri = around. = physis = a being, a growth): short, hair-like growths in the form of a fringe lining the inside of an ostiole or of a pore in a stroma


Periplasm (Gr. peri = around + Plasma = a molded structure): a layer of protoplasm surrounding the oosphere of certain Phycomycota


Perithecium (pI. perithecia; Gr. peri = around + theke = a case): a closed ascocarp with a pore at the top, a true ostiole~ and a wall of its own


Peritrichous (Gr. peri"" around + thrix = hair): refers to a bacterial cell with many flagella around its periphery or with one flagellum attached at the side


Petri dish (named after R. J. Petri, a German scientist): a glass container consisting of a circular, flat dish with vertical sides, and a similar but slightly larger covers which fits over it. Standard equipment for the growth of microorganisms in pure culture.


Phylum (pI. phyla; Gr. phylon = stock, race): a large taxonomic category consisting of many classes.


Pileus (pl. pilei; L. pileus = cap): upper portion or cap of certain types of ascocarps and basidiocarps


Planogamete (Gr. Planetes = wanderer + gametes = husband, sex cell): a motile gamete


Planogametic copulation (Gr. planetes ::; wanderer + gametes = husband; L. copulate = to couple): fusion of naked gametes, one or both of which are motile


Plasmodesmid (Gr. plasma = a molded object, i.e., protoplasm + desmos = bond): an isthmus-like protoplasmic connection between adjacent cells of a grouping, filament, or tissue


Plasmodiocarp (Gr. Plasma = a molded object + karpos = fruit): a curved or branched, vein-like fruiting structure of some of the Myxogastres


Plasmodium (pl. plasmodia; Gr. plasmo. = a molded object): a naked, multinucleate mass of protoplasm moving and feeding in amoeboid fashion.  The somatic phase of the Myxomyceteae and the Plasmodiophoreae


Plasmogamy (Gr. plasma = a molded object + gamos = marriage, union): the fusion of two protoplasts


Plectenchyma (Gr. pleko = I weave + enchyma = infusion, i.e., a woven tissue): the general term employed to designate all types of fungal tissues. The two most common types of tissues are pros6nchyma and pseudoparenchyma.


Polyphyletic (Gr. poly = much, many + phylon = stock. race): of several lines of descent.


Primordium (pl. primordia; L. primordium = beginning): the beginning stage of any structure.


Progametangium (pl. progametangia; Gr. pro = before + gametangium): a cell which gives rise to a gametangium


Promycelium (pl. promycelia; Gr. pro = before + mycelium}: the epibasidium of the rusts and smuts. A germ tube issuing from the teleutospore, which bears the basidiospores


Prosenchyma (Gr. pros = toward + enchyma = infusion, i.e., approaching a tissue): a type of plectenchyma in which the component hyphae lie parallel to one another and are easily recognized as such


Prosorus (pl. prosori; Gr. pro = before + soro" = heap): a structure which eventually divides to give rise to a sorus


Pseudocapillitium (pl. pseudocapillitia; Gr. pseudo = false + capillitium): irregular threads, plates, or other structures present among the spores within the fructifications of many Myxogastres; resembles capillitium.


Pseudomycelium (pl. pseudomycelia; Gr. pseudo = false + mycelium): a series of cells adhering end to end forming a chain. Produced by some yeasts.


Pseudoparaphyses (sing. pseudoparaphysisi Gr. pseudo = false + paraphysis): sterile threads attached both to the roof and to the base of an ascocarp.


Pseudoparenchyma (pl. pseudoparenchymata; Gr. pseudo = false + parenchyma = a type of plant tissue): a type of plectenchyma consisting of oval or isodiametric cells, the component hyphae having lost their individuality


Pseudoplasmodium (pl. pseudoplasmodia; Gr. pseudo = false + plasmodium): an aggregation of amoeboid cells constituting the initial stage. of fruiting of the Acrasieae


pseudoseptum (pl. pseudosepta; Gr. pseudo = false + L septum = hedge): a plug-like partition of cellulin or other substance in a hypha, resembling a septum.


Pycnidiospore (Pycnidium + Gr. sporo! = seed, spore): a conidium borne in a pycnidium


Pycnidium (pl. pycnidia; Gr. pyknon = concentrated + -idion, dim in. suffix): an asexual, hollow fruiting body, lined inside with conidiophores


Pycniospore (Gr. pyknos = concentrated + sporos = seed, spore): the old designation for the spermatium of the rusts, used before the true function of the spermatia of the rusts was discovered


Pycnium (pl. pycnia; Gr. pyknon = concentrated): the old designation for the spermogonium of the rusts


Pycnosclerotium (pl. pycnosclerotia; pycnidium + sclerotium, from Gr. skleron = hard): a more or less hard-walled structure resembling a pycnidium but containing no spores


<Q words>


<R words>


Reproduction (L. re = prefix for again + producere = to bring forth): the production of new individuals having all the characteristics typical of the species.


Resupinate (L. resupinatus = inverted): lying flat on the sub-stratum with the hymenium on the free surface.


Reticulate (L. reticulum = a small net): having the form of a net; covered with net-like ridges


Rhizoid (Rhizoids) (Gr. rhiza = root + -oeides = like): a short, thin branch of a thallus, superficially resembling a root


Rhizomorph (Gr. rhiza = root + morphe = shape): a thick strand of somatic hyphae in which the hyphae have lost their individuality, the whole mass behaving as an organized unit. The structure of the growing tip of the rhizomorph somewhat resembles that of a root tip: hence the name.


Rhizomycelium (pl. rhizomycelia; Gr. rhiza = root + mycelium): a rhizoidal system extensive enough to resemble mycelium superficially.


<S words>


Saprobe (Gr. sapros = rotten + bios = life): an organism that utilizes dead organic matter for food.


Sarcina (pl. sarcinae; L. sarcina = bundle): an arrangement of spherical bacterial cells in cubical masses, resulting from the division of the cells in three planes. Also a genus of spherical bacteria that exhibit such an arrangement.


Schizont (Gr. schizo = I tear): anything that splits up into portions, but more especially a plasmodium of the Plasmodiophorales, which behaves in this manner.


Sclerotium (pl. sclerotia; Gr. skleron = hard): a hard resting body resistant to unfavorable conditions, which may remain dormant for long periods of time and germinate upon the return of favorable conditions


Self-compatible (L. compati = to suffer with): self-fertile. Refers to a thallus that reproduces sexually by itself.


Self-incompatible (L. in = not + compati = to suffer with): self-sterile. Refers to a thallus which cannot reproduce by itself sexually.Septate (L. septum = hedge): with cross-walls


Septum (pl. septa; L. septum = hedge, partition): a cross-wall in a hypha


Seta (pl. setae; L. seta = bristle): a bristle-like hair (Figures 132B, 134F, G).Sexual reproduction: reproduction involving the fusion of two compatible nuclei


Slime mold: a member of the phylum Myxomycophyta


Soma (pl. somata; Gr. soma = body): the body of an organism as distinguished from its reproductive organs or reproductive phase.


Somatic (Gr. soma = body): refers to the body phase-in plants, the vegetative phase-structure, or function as distinguished from the reproductive.


Somatogamy (Gr. soma = body + gamos = marriage, union): fusion of somatic cells during plasmogamy


Sorocarp (Gr. Sofas = heap + karpos = fruit): the fructification of the Acrasieae


Sorus (pl. sori; Gr. Sofas = heap): a mass of sporangia or spores.


Species (sing. and pl. species; L. species = kind): the unit of classification.  A group of closely related individuals resembling one another in certain inherited characteristics. It is designated by a binomial consisting of the generic name and the specific epithet.


Spermatiophore (Gr. spermation = little seed + phoreus = bearer): a specialized hypha that produces spermatia


Spermatium (pl. spermatia; Gr. spermation = little seed): a non-motile, uni-ucleate, spore-like male structure that empties its contents into a re-ceptive female structure during plasmogamy. Spermatia are variously regarded as gametes or gametangia.


Spermatization (Gr. sperma = seed): plasmogamy by the union of a spermatium with a receptive structure


Spermogonium (pl. spermogonia; Gr. sperma = seed, sperm + gennao = I give birth): a structure resembling a pycnidium which contains minute, rod- shaped, or oval spore-like bodies which in some cases have proved to be functional spermatia


Sphaerocyst (Gr. sphaira = sphere + kystis = bladder): spherical cells present in the trama of certain Agaricaceae such as Russula


Spirillum (pl. spirilla; Gr. speira = coil): a spiral bacterial cell. Also a genus of spiral bacteria.


Sporangiolum (pl. sporangiola; Gr. sporos = seed, spore + angeion = vessel + L. -alum, dimin. suffix): a small sporangium containing few spores


Sporangiophore (Gr. sporos = seed, spore + angeion = vessel + phoreus = bearer): a hypha that bears a sporangium


Sporangiospore (Sporangiospores)  (Gr. sporos = seed, spore + angeion = vessel + sporos): a spore borne within a sporangium


Sporangium (pl. sporangia; Gr. sporos = seed, spore + angeion = vessel): a cell that contains one or more spores. Generally an asexual structure


Spore (Spores)  (Gr. sporos = seed, spore): a minute propagative unit functioning as a seed, but differing from it in that a spore does not contain a preformed embryo 


Sporodocbium (pl. sporodocbia; Gr. sporos = seed, spore + docheion = container): a cushion shaped stroma covered with conidiophores


Sporophore (Gr. sporos = seed, spore + phoreus = bearer): any structure that bears spores.


Sporoplasm (Gr. sporos = seed, spore + plasma = a molded object, i.e., protoplasm): the protoplast of a spore, particularly of a bacterial endospore.


Sporotballus (pl. sporotballi; Gr. sporos = seed, spore + thollos = shoot, thallus): a thallus that produces spores, as opposed to a gametothallus


Staphylococcus (pl. staphylococci; Gr. staphyle = grape + kokkos = grain, kernel): an arrangement of spherical bacterial cells in irregular groups resembling bunches of grapes


Sterigma (pl. sterigmata; Gr. sterigma = support): a small hyphal branch or structure, which supports a sporangium, a conidium, or a basidiospore


Streptococcus (pl. streptococci; Gr. streptos = curved, twisted + kokkos = grain, kernel): an arrangement of spherical bacterial cells in chains resulting from cell division in only one plane. Also a genus of spherical bacteria exhibiting such an arrangement.


Stroma (pl. stromata; Gr. stroma = mattress): a compact somatic structure, much like a mattress, on which or in which fructifications are usually formed


Stylospore (Gr. stylos = pilar + sporos = seed, spore): an elongated or cane shaped pycnidiospore of unknown function


Symphogenous (Gr. synphyein = to grow together + gignesthai = to be born, i.e., originating from structures which grow together): refers to the origin of a fruiting body from a number of interweaving hyphae


Synnema (pL synnemata; Gr. syn = together + nema = yam): a group of conidiophores cemented together and forming an elongated spore.bearing structure


<T words>


Taxonomy (Gr. Taxis = order, arrangement + nomos = law): the science of classification.


Teleutospore (Gr. Teleutaios = last + sporos = seed, spore): a thick-walled resting spore in some Hemibasidiomycetes, notably the rusts and smuts, in which karyogamy occurs; it is apart of the basidial apparatus


Telium (pl. telia; Gr. telD's;;: end): a group of binucleate cells which produce teleutospores


Tetrapolarity (Gr. tetras = a group of four + polos = pole): a condition of sexual compatibility in some Basidiomycota in which each of the four basidiospores of a basidium is of a different strain.


Thallophyte (Gr. thallos = shoot, thallus + phyton = plant): a plant whose somatic phase is devoid of stems, roots or leaves, and which propagates by means of spores.


Thallus (pl. thalli; Gr. thallos = shoot): a relatively simple plant body devoid of stems, roots and leaves; in fungi, the somatic phase.


Trama (pl. tramae; L. trama = woof): the fungal tissue composing the pileus or bearing the hymenium of the Holobasidiomycetes


Trichogyne (Gr. Thrix = hair + gyne = woman, female): the receptive neck of the ascogonium, which is often long and hair-like


<U words>


Universal veil: a thin, veil-like membrane that covers certain types of young mushrooms. Upon expansion of the mushroom, the universal veil tears and its remnants may be seen in the form of scales on the pileus and in the form of a volva.


Uredium (pl. uredia; L. urere = to burn): a group of binucleate cells which give rise to uredospores


Uredospore (L. urere = to burn + Gr. sporos = seed, spore): a binucleate, repeating spore of the Uredinales


<V words>


Vesicle (L. vesicula = small bladder): a thin, structure in which zoospores are released or in which zoospores are differentiated; also the bulbous head terminating the conidiophore of Aspergillus


Virus (pl. viruses; L. virus = poison): a minute, particulate, infectious entity that causes disease.


Volva (pl. valvae; L. tlolva = covering): a cup at the base of the stem of certain mushrooms


<W words>


<X words>


<Y words>


<Z words>


Zoogamete (Gr. zoon = animal + gametes = husband): a motile gamete. Also called planogamete.


Zoosporangium (Gr. zoon == animal + sporangium): a sporangium that contains zoospores


Zoospore (Zoospores) (Gr. zoon == animal + sporos  = seed, spore): a motile, asexually produced spore


Zygophore (Gr. zygos = yoke + phoreus = bearer): a specialized hyphal branch bearing zygospores


Zygosporangium (pl. zygosporangia; Gr. zygos = yoke + sporangium): a sporangium which is formed from the germination of a zygospore.


Zygospore (Gr. zygos = yoke + sporos = seed, spore): a resting spore which results from the fusion of two gametangia in the Zygomycota


Zygote (Gr. zygos = yoke): a diploid cell resulting from the union of two haploid cells.