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             [Note:  All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]




A review derived from the following:


Nyland, Edo.  2001.  Linguistic Archaeology: An
Introduction.   Trafford Publ., Victoria, B.C., Canada.

ISBN 1-55212-668-4. 541 p.


----Please CLICK on desired underlined categories [to search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:







          An ancient language form that originated in the North African area of our most ancient civilizations has been studied by Nyland (2001).  He found that many words used to describe names of places and things in Slavic languages seem to be closely related to the ancient language, which Nyland called Saharan, and which later was predated by the Igbo Language of West Africa.  Fortuitously, the Basque Language is a close relative to the original Saharan.  Following is a discussion of this relationship:


         Some linguists have suggested that elements of Basque words can be detected in many East European names and words. In the following analysis of a number of Ukrainian, Russian and Polish names Nyland (2001) searched for the Basque element and found that all Slavic names are agglutinated using Basque vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) roots with frequent use of VCCV endings and with the vowels interlocking. This form of word agglutination was done with the "VCV vowel interlocking formula". For more information, see the Ogam Script and book "Linguistic Archaeology".





          A large number of names end in -ski, so let us look at the suffix "-ski", an ending common to Polish, Ukrainian, Serbian and Russian family names. The suffix "-ski" can have many meanings in Basque. The reader must keep in mind that the English "s" in Basque is spelled as "z" while the letter "s" in Basque is pronounced as a soft "sh". This means that the Slavic suffix "-ski" may have originated from "-ski or -zki". These two suffixes have a number of meanings in Basque:


aski             revenge, sufficient, frequently
azki             N.A.
eski             stairs, ladder, to offer
ezki             linden tree, irritable, small bell, belltower, bellringer
iski              pin, needle case, weapon, joke, mockery
izki              shrimp, letter of alphabet, to write
oski             shoes, cobbler, coward, afraid
ozki             susceptible to the cold
uski             N.A.
uzki             anus, get lost!, remains, leftovers

Some examples of -ski names:


The "v" in Slavic names is always represented by a "b" in Basque, the "c" by a "k".

bog     bog     boga            rower, boatman
oli       oli  
  oliodura        anointed, holy
ub.      ubi  
  ubil              whirlpool
.ski      iski 
  iskirio          mockery, joke

(They made) a mockery of the holy boatman in the whirlpool. This refers to the annual voluntary sacrifice of a young man in the whirlpool of Corryvreckan.



.g.            ega           egarri              strong desire

.zo           azo          -azo                 to bring about, to make happen

ob.           oba          obakuntza       improvement

.ski      aski            askietsi            sufficient, adequate


He has a strong desire to bring about adequate improvements.


Khmelnitsky, Bogdan, .bo-og.-.da.-an.,

.bo     abo        aboskatu           to proclaim

og.     oga        ogasun              property, land

.da     ada        adarkadura       ramification

an.     ana        anaiguda          civil war

.k.     ako        akordio             agreement

.h.     oho        ohoragarri        honorable

.me     ome     omenaldi           ribute

el.      ela        ela                      talk, negotiation

.ni      ani        anitz                  many

it.      itxi         itxi                    to abandon, to lay down

.ski    iski        iskilo                 weapon


Proclaim our land at the outcome of the civil war. The honorable agreement

is a tribute to the many negotiations (achieving) the laying down of weapons.



or.           ora           oraindanik             from now on

.lo            alo           alokairu           salary

ob.           oba          obakuntza        improvement

.ski      aski            askiki                       adequately


From now on my salary is adequately improved.



.pa           opa          opa izan          longing for

ab.           aba          abadune opportunity

.lo            alo           alokairu          salary, earn money

ob.           oba          obakuntza        betterment, improvement

.ski       aski           ask                            sufficient, enough


I am longing for an opportunity to earn a salary sufficient for improvement.



.pa           ipa           ipartar                     northern

alu           alu           alukeria          repulsive action

ubi           ubi           ubil                           whirlpool

is.             isu            isuri                           to inspire

.ki            uki           ukitu                        to touch, to move


The repulsive action (i.e. sacrifice) in the northern whirlpool inspired and touched me.


Prezewalski,, (the "w" is usually meaningless)

.p.            ape          apellaniz                    pasture

.re            ere           erreka                                 stream

eze           eze           ezeizabarrena                   under the fir trees

al.            ale            aleketa                     grain in abundance

.ski      eski            eskindu                   to offer


In the pasture by the stream under the firs we offered them grain in abundance.



.se            ase           asezindako             craving for

eku          eku          ekurutasun             peace of mind

ute           ute           utea                          to encourage        

er.            era           erakuste          education

.ski      aski            aski                          adequate


"Craving for peace of mind? Encourage adequate education!"



.sta esta estali                        to shelter

aro          aro           aro                            weather

oka          oka          okaztagarri             disgusting

ado          ado          adoretasun             courage

om.         ome         omen egin       to pay tribute

.ski      eski            eskini                       offering, devotional


Sheltered from the disgusting weather we paid tribute (to their) courage with a devotional.



.s.             asa           asarredun              angered

.tra      atra            atrapala                noise, sound

abi           abi           abiatsuk                impulsively

in.            ina           inarrosketa                   to shake

.ski      aski            askitan         frequently, often


When angered by the sound, he often shook impulsively.



.ri             iri             irritsatu          to yearn for

asa           asa           asagotu  to go far away

ano          ano          ano                           food supply

ob.           oba          oba                           better

.ski      aski      askiki             plentiful


He yearned to go far away with a better and more plentiful food supply.



txai           txai                  txairo                             graceful

aiko          aiko    aiko maikoka            making excuses

ob.                 oba  obakuntza           improvement

.ski            aski           aski                                       enough, satisfactory


Gracefully making excuses (and showing) satisfactory improvement.


          It is safe to assume that all -ski names have such sentences written

in them, although not all yield their hidden sentence as readily as the ones above did.




The ending "-itch" can also have several meanings. In Basque the sharp "sch" is written as "x", which spelling will be used here:


itxa          to await, to hope, to trust, expectation, sea

itxe          N.A.

itxi           to shut in, to close, to abandon, to denounce, to permit

itxo         to wait, waiting room

itxu         aspect, appearance, absurd, similar, to simulate, hypocrite, imposter, pretense, to transform


Adamovitch, ada-amo-obi-itx.,

ada          ada          adatz                        long hair, long braids

amo        amo         amona                     grandmother

obi           obi           obi                            grave

itx.       Itxi           itxiarazi           to enclose


Grandmother's long braids were enclosed in her grave.



.mo         amo         amona                     grandmother

os.           oso          oso                            simple

.to            oto           otoi                           prayer

obi           obi           obi                            grave

itx.       Itxi            itxi                            to close


(After) grandmother's simple prayer the grave was closed.


Rabinovitch, .ra-abi-ino-obi-itx.,

.ra            era           erauntsi         violent storm

abi           abi           abiatu                      to begin

ino           ino           inon                         somewhere

obi           obi           obiratu   to bury

itx.       itxa            itxaso                       sea


A violent storm is beginning; bury (him) somewhere at sea.


Topalovitch, .to-opa-alo-obi-itx.

.to            ato           ator                               Come!

opa          opa          opari egin            to give

alo           alo           alorgizon             farmer

obi           obi           obiratze               burial

itx.       itxu           itxurazko             decent


Come, let's give the farmer a decent burial.

'alo' could also stand for alogereko (mercenary):


Come let's give the mercenary a decent burial.





Another common ending is -ko which may come from:

ako:  agreement, contract, tradition, memory
eko:  to produce, fertile, ecology, economy, administrator
iko:   lump, swelling, stonemason's hammer
oko:  cattle stable, pasture next to the house, chin, dewlap
uko:  refusal, negative, elbow

Atamanenko, ata-ama-ane-en-.-ko,
ata       ata      ataldu               to divide
ama     ama   
ama                   mother
ane      ane    
anega                measure of grain
en.       ena   
-ena plural         possessive suffix
.ko       ako   
akordiozko        according to tradition, as usual

Mother divided our measure of grain according to tradition.

Bracco, .b.-.ra-ak.-.ko
.b.             abe          
abe                                      cross
.ra            era         
erakasle maisu                     teacher
aka        akatsbako                              perfect   
.ko            ako       
akorduan euki                       to remember

"Remember our perfect teacher of the cross."


Macarenko, .ma-aka-are-en.-.ko,
.ma     ama    ama                           mother
aka     aka    
akabu                        perfect
are     are    
arrera                         reception, welcome
en.     ene    
enetan                        always
.ko     eko    
ekoizkor                     productive, lavish, generous

Mother's perfect welcome was always generous.




Baranof, .ba-ara-ano-ob.,
.ba     aba    abade                     priest
ara     ara   
arrapatu                mozkorra,  to get drunk
ano     ano   
ano                        wine
oba    obae                       of course

The priest got drunk on wine, of course.


Baryluk, .ba-ari-ilu-uk.,

.ba           eba          ebaskindegi                hide-out

ari            ari            arinari eman             to escape

ilu            ilu            iluntasun            darkness

uk.           uka          ukan                             to have


He escaped from his hiding place during darkness. 


Boyar, .bo-oia-ar.,

.bo     ebo     eboluzionatu                     to develop, cultivate

oia     oia      oian                                   forest

ar.     ara      arazo                                  task


Cultivating the forest (is their) task.



ko      ko      kontaezinbesteko               innumerable/all the people

os.     osa     osatu                                   to unite

.sa     asa     asaben                                 ancestral

ak.     ako     akordu                                tradition/memory


Unite all the people in the ancestral tradition.


Dmitriev, .d.-.mi-it.-.ri-eb.,

.d.            idu           iduki                        to have

.mi           umi          umiltasun       humility

it.             ita            itxaro                       to trust

.ri             ari            -ari                           mission

eb.           eba          ebanjelari       evangelist


Have humility, and trust in the evangelist's mission.


Dumala, .du-uma-ala,

.du           idu           iduki                        to have

uma        uma         uma                         child

 ala      ala              alaitu                       to fill with joy


Having a child fills (me) with joy.


Dzogan, .d.-.zo-oga-an.,

.d.      ida      idatziz                 to record

.zo     azo     azokalar               merchant

oga    oga     ogasun                wealth

an.     ane     anega                  grain measure, supply


He records the wealthy merchant's grain supply.


Gorbachov, .go-orba-axo-ob.,

.go             ego        egoera                     manner of behaving

orba       orba       orbaingabe             pure

axo            axo        axoladun        careful, diligent

ob.             obe        obengabe        blameless


His behavior is pure, diligent and blameless.


Gulag .gu-ula-ag.

.gu           egu          egur                              punishment, wood

ula           ula           ulaka/uluka                wailing/crying out

ag.           aga          agaka                            hitting with a stick


"He cried out after being hit with a stick in punishment."


Karasik, .ka-ara-asi-ik.,

.ka     ika     ikaserazi                          to teach

ara     ara     arrai                                gentle

asi      asi     asialdi                              beginning

ik.      ika     ikasgale                           desire to learn


Gentle teaching creates a desire to learn.


Korelus, .ko-ore-elu-us.,

.ko           ako          akorduan euki       to remember

ore           ore           orekan                     to keep your balance

elu           elu           elurlera               sled

us.           usa           usatu                        to get used to


Remember to keep your balance when getting used to your sled.


Korolef, .ko-oro-ole-eb.,

.ko            ako           akorduan euki                 to remember

oro           oro            oroegile                     Creator

ole           ole           oles egin                                  to call upon

eb.           ebe           ebertar                     Hebrew, Jesus


Remember the Creator by calling upon Jesus.


Kowalchuk, .ko-al.-.txu-uk.,

.ko           ako          akorduan euki       to remember

al.            ala           alaitasun                             happiness

.txu     atxu            atxuri                      newborn lamb

uk.           uki           ukitu                       to touch


Remember your happiness when you touched the newborn lamb?


Landau, .la-an.-.da-au

.la            ala           alabeharreko             unavoidable

an.           ana          anarkia      anarchy

.da           ada          adarkadura                ramification

au            au            auhen                          lament, suffering


The unavoidable ramification of anarchy is suffering.


Ligachev, .li-iga-atxe-eb,

.li             ili             ilinti                         fiery

iga           iga           igartze                     prophesying

atxe     atxe            atxeki                       to adhere to, to be determined

eba          eba          ebanjelari       evangelist


Fiery, determined, prophesying evangelist.


Mazowsze (Mazovshe), .ma-azo-ob.-.xe, (Polish singing/dancing group)

.ma          ama         amaikatxo        many

azo          azo          azoka                       market day

ob.           obe          obeki                          good

.xe           exe           exeri                           to sit down


Many market days it is good to sit down (and listen).


Monomakh, .mo-ono-oma-ak.-.h.,

.mo      amo     amodiotsu                      loving

ono      ono     onon                               wonderful

oma     oma     oma                                grandmother, tribal mother

ak.       ako     akorduan euki                to remember

.h.        oha     ohardun                           thoughtful


Remember our wonderfully thoughtful tribal mother.


          Vladimir Monomakh was the grandson of Yaroslav the wise, the Great

Lawgiver; from his name it appears that Yaroslav the Wise must have been

a woman. See Yaroslav below.



.pa           opa          opa izan                 longing for

ax.           axo          axolagabetsu                carefree

.ni            oni           onik                                 safe

ik.            ike           ikertaldi                 visit


Longing for a carefree and safe visit.


Pecheneg, .pe-eche-ene-eg.,

pe      pe       pena ukan                      to suffer

exe     exe     exeri                               to sit

ene     ene     -enerako                         before

eg.      egu      egur                               punishment


(Let them) sit and suffer before punishment.


Pierzchala, .pi-er.-.z.-.txa-ala,

.pi            ipi            ipin                           to acquire

er.            era           erakuste          education

.z.            azi            aziarazi            to raise

.txa      itxa            itxaro               hope

ala           ala           alaitasun          happiness


Acquiring an education raises the hope for happiness.


Polovtsy, .bo-olo-ob.-.tsi,

.bo     ebo     eboluzionatu                 to develop, process

olo     olo      olo                                  oats

ob.     oba     oba                                 better

.tsi     atsi      atximurkari                  pincher, roller


You process the oats better in a roller.



.p.            opo          oporrak  vacation

.ro           oro          oroitu                       to remember

oko         oko          okolu                       stable

op.           opa          opa izan          to long for

.txu      atxu          atxuri                       newborn lamb

uk.           uki           ukitu                        to touch


Remember the stable on our vacation where you longed to touch the newborn lamb?


Ranogajek, .ra-ano-oga-aje-ek.,

.ra            ara           arrapatur mozkorra to get drunk

ano          ano          ano                           wine

oga          oga          ogasun   homemade

aje           aie            aiene                        grief, suffering

ek.           eka          ekarrarazi       to cause


Getting drunk on home-made wine causes grief.


Rasputin, .ra-as.-.pu-uti-in.,

.ra            ara           arakintza                   assacre

as.            asa           asarrekeria                shocking

.pu           apu          apurtzaile                  destructive

uti            uti            utikan               go away, get out!

in.            ino           inola                 in any way possible


A shocking and destructive massacre! Get out in any way possible.


Razin, .ra-azi-in.,

.ra     ira         iraultzatu              to revolt

azi     azi         azitoki                   birthplace

in.     ine         inertzia                  downtrodden


Revolt for our downtrodden birthplace.


Shatalin, xa-ata-ali-in.

xa            xa             xalo                          open/frank

ata           ata           atalgabeko      uncomplicated

ali            ali            alizan                       capable

in.            inu           inuritze            inspiring


"Uncomplicated, capable and inspiring".


Slavoj Zizek,

.s.             osa           osatu                        to unite

.la            ala           alafede   I swear

abo          abo          abotskatu        to proclaim

oi             oi             oinlegedi         constitution


"I swear to unite us and proclaim the constitution."



.zi            ezi            eziketa                     education

ize            ize            izendu                      famous

ek.           eka          ekarri                       to bring


"Famous for bringing education."


Skorepa, .s.-.ko-ore-epa,

.s.             asa           asagotu                   to go away

.ko           ako          akorduan euki       to remember

ore           ore           oren                                     hour

epa          epa          epaialdi               trial


If you go away, remember the hour of the trial.



.s.             asa           asaldagarri             shocking

.lu            alu           alukeria          repulsive action

uts.      utsi            utziezin           unavoidable

.ka           ika           ikara                        terror, horror

aia           aia           aiaia                         grief, suffering


The shockingly repulsive action caused unavoidable horror and suffering.


Stalin, .sta-ali-in.,

.sta     asta             astapotro              brutish, in a brutish way

ali            ali            alienatu                to kill a person

in.            ino           inola                              in any way possible


In a brutish way he kills people any way possible.


Tarasof, .ta-ara-aso-ob.,

.ta            ita            itxaro                            to hope for

ara           ara           araberatasun              agreement

aso          azo          -azo                               to bring about

ob.           oba          obakuntza            improvement


We hope for agreement to bring about improvement.



.bo     abo     aboskatu                          to proclaim

ol.     ola        oleazio                             destiny

.ni     eni        eni                                   to me, us

itza    itza      izaldun                             honorable


Proclaim an honorable destiny for us.


Vsevolod and Mikhalko (brothers),  .mi-ik.-.ha-al.-.ko,

.b.     oba     obakuntza                            improvement

.se     ase     aseguratu                             to insure

ebo    ebo     eboluzionatu                       the develop, produce

olo     olo       olo                                       oats

od.     odi       odi                                       tube, drum, rolled


The improvement insured the production of rolled oats.


.mi     ami     amilura                               falling water

ik.      ika     ikaserazi                               to teach

.ha     aha     ahalizan                               to make possible

al.      ale      aleketa                                 abundance of grain

.ko     eko     ekoiztu                                 to produce, to process


He teaches how falling water makes it possible to process grain in abundance.

          The translations of these names conflicts with historical records


Yaroslav the Wise,,

.ja      oja     oian                    forest

aro     aro     arroztu               to exile

os.     osa     osatu                   to unify, to unite

.la      ala     alafede                 I swear to

ab.     abe     aberkide              fellow countrymen, patriots


The forest exile swore to unify the patriots.


       From the name of her grandson, Monomakh, it appears that Yaroslav was a wise tribal mother.The true meaning of  Slav,, osa-ala-abe is here revealed.  It has nothing to do with slavery, instead it means:

"I swear to unite my fellow countrymen".



.za           aza           azaluts                           insincere

ada          ada          adarra sartu                   to deceive

ap.           ape          apeta                                   tendency

.ru           eru           errukigabe                    cruel, pitiless

uxki     uxki           uxkia miazkatzera         get lost!


(You are) insincere and deceiving (and have) a tendency to be cruel; Get lost! (what a name!)


Zaporogian, .za-apo-oro-ogi-an.,

.za       oza     ozar                        arrogant

apo       apo     apokeria               insult

oro       oro     orobatu                  to unify

ogi        ogi     ogipuska                easygoing

an.       ana     anaitasun              brotherhood


Arrogant insults united the easygoing brotherhood.






txe           txerri       txerrizain       swineherd

.no           ino           inor                          no-one

obi           obi           obi                            grave

il.             ile             iletu                          to mourn


No-one mourned at the grave of the swineherd.


Dniepr, d.n-ie.p-.r

d.n      don                 donets             to bless, the blessed one

ie.p.    ihesp       ihespid             means of escape

.r              ur                 ur                            water


The blessed one's means of escape was by water.


          (Probably referring to the Priestess Medea who escaped with Jason up the Dniepr river after taking the golden fleece from King Aietus. See "The Voyage of  Argo" by Apollonius of Rhodes).


Donetz, donetz     donetz       to sanctify


The sanctified one.


Irkutsk, ir.-.ku-utsik,

ir.             iri             iri                              city

.ku           iku           ikustatu           to visit

utsik    utsik          utsik                         deserted


I visited the deserted city.


Kamchatka, .ka-am.-.txa-at.-.ka,

.ka           ika           ikaragarri       frightening

am.          amo         amorro   fury

.txa      otxa           otxoa                        wolf

at.            ate           aterbegabe      unprotected, out in the open

.ka           eka          ekantze            to get used to.


Out in the open, the frightening fury of the wolves takes getting used to.


Kiev, .ki-eb.,

.ki            oki           okitu                        totally, completely

eb.           eba          ebanjeliotu             to evangelize


Completely evangelized.


Okhotsk, ok.-.ho-otsk

ok.             oka      okaztagarri      disgusting

.ho             aho      ahozagarri       astonishing

otsk       otsok      otsokeria           brutality


Astonishingly disgusting brutality.


Taymyr, tai.-.mi-ir.,

tai.       taiu           taiuera            size,  appearance

.mi           umi          umildu   to humble

ir.             ira            iraganald        migration, migrating herd


The size of the migrating herd is humbling.


Vladivostok, bo-osto-ok.,

.b.            aba          abaroan egon             to take refuge

.la            ala           alabearreko                 necessary

adi           adi           adi                                 watch out!

bo            bo            bortxakeria                 violence

osto     osto           ostosketa              rolling of the thunder

ok.           oki           okildu                           to be frightened


Watch out! It's necessary to take refuge. The violence of the thunder is frightening.





          The people themselves could not have invented these names. The system of agglutination is exactly the same as was used by the Benedictines and their grammarians in western Europe. It is well known that there was close cooperation between the eastern and western Christian churches in the 10th and 11th centuries, especially between the Pannonhalma Benedictines in Hungary and the monks from the Tyniec monastery in Poland and Kiev. The Kiev monastery of Pesherska Lavra was established in 1040, a few decades after these other two monasteries and the required linguists were apparently sent from there to Kiev to train the monks in the use of the Basque Language


Pesherska Lavra
.pe - es. - .he - er. - .ska    .la - ab. - .ra
ope - esi - ihe - era - aska     ila - abe - era
opetsi - eziketa - ihesleku - eraspen - askamen     ilarteko - abegion - erantzun
to offer - education - shelter - devotion - pardon     lifetime - hospitality - to fulfill
"We offer education, shelter, devotion and pardon.   
Ours is a lifetime of hospitality and fulfillment."  


          The early cooperation is still remembered because in the summer of 1996 the head of the Russian Christian church planned to attend, with the Roman Catholic Pope, the 1000-year celebrations at Pannonhalma. Unfortunately, illness prevented the historic meeting from happening. There was probably no longer a source of educated Saharan/Basque speakers in Russia, so either these specialists were recruited in Liguria (northern Italy) and Euskadi (northern Spain) and sent east, or the linguists worked from Basque dictionaries, without being able to speak the language. Possibly some of both happened.