[Note: All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]
ODYSSEUS’ TRAVELS *
A review derived from the following:
Nyland, Edo. 2001. Linguistic Archaeology: An
Introduction. Trafford Publ., Victoria, B.C., Canada.
ISBN 1-55212-668-4. 541 p.
----Please CLICK on underlined categories for detail [to search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:
THE SAHARA EXODUS
To trace the origin of the violent fighting of around 1,200 bce. (See Sea Peoples), it is best to look at the early development of the people and the two religions, which were at odds, starting with the time that the Sahara had turned into a desert and became unlivable (see Climate). The height of glaciation’s came about 16,000 bce. At that time, the world's oceans had been lowered over 100 meters because much of the earth’s water was stored in glaciers on the continents. At first, the melting of the huge continental glaciers was slow. However, by 10,000 bce., the retreat of the glaciers from the mountain ranges of Europe had created significant changes in continental air circulation, which caused the Sahara to change from a lush grazing area into an ever-expanding desert. The many tribes which had lived there for millennia, had to flee the encroaching desert, taking their cattle with them. Migration did not take place haphazardly.. When the decision had been made to move, an entire tribe migrated together and embarked for transportation. They reunited at their landing site in Europe before moving on to their new region. No one was left behind, except for the Sea Peoples tribes themselves who had to maintain the contact between their original homeland and the colonies established by them. This north African heritage is still very noticeable in Ireland, as described by Bob Quinn in his book "The Atlantean, Ireland's North African Heritage".
Most of the migrating tribes had fled the drought by going north to Europe, a name from Basque eur-opa, euri (rain) opa (longing for) means "Longing for rain" (Nyland 2001)). The two major groups of Sea Peoples of North Africa, the Berbers from Morocco and Algiers, and the Shardana from Cyrenaica and the Black Sea, ferried these migrating tribes across the Mediterranean north to Europe and the Balkan via the Black Sea. The Atlantic coast of Europe had been colonized earlier by the dark-haired Rh-negative Berber tribes from Morocco, who had established population centers in the Bay of Biscay, western Ireland, the Hebrides of Scotland, on many of the Norwegian islands, the southern tip of Sweden and as far north as Arctic Norway.
These sea migrants brought along the three pillars of their civilization: 1) absolute faith in re-incarnation and their Great Goddess, 2) a highly disciplined system of oral education and 3) their ancient and well-developed Saharan language. Edo Nyland has referred to their belief as a way of life, because there was no separation between the secular and the faith. A religion, by definition, is based on revelation such as found in Christianity, Judaism and Islam, which the Goddess' way of life was not. Studies of contemporary primitive societies have provided insights into the social structure of this population. It was based on the tribal, or extended family, system. The family unit as we know it today with father, mother and children, did not exist. The unit was the tribe and children born into the tribe were the responsibility of every adult. It took the whole community to raise a child. This was a matrilineal organized society and the paternity of a child, or its birth date for that matter, was not important. The tribal council controlled the land surrounding the village, which was administered democratically by a council of elders headed by the Amona, the head of the matrilineal organized tribe. It lacked the centralized and autocratic structure of the later patriarchy where one man dominated. The title Amona was abbreviated to Mona and ‘”M”, followed by the name of the tribe such as in M'Uhin, now spelled M'Ewen or McEwen (uhin means waves: the tribe of the navigators. Even today the family names in Morocco are often spelled with M'. There are still families in Scotland and Ireland that refused to accept the patriarchal Mac and have retained the M', such as in M'Gonigle.
The first traces of dissent in the age-old Goddess civilization were noted around 4,000 bce.according to archaeologist Marija Gimbutas, somewhere in Anatolia or Southern Russia. It happened at about the same time as the invention of metalworking, the domestication of horse and camel, large scale agriculture and the first population pressures. It is likely that all these conditions contributed to the upcoming breakdown. The Goddess civilization had been developed among the herding and fishing tribes in which the men were away from home for very long periods. This left the women in charge of the home front. As long as the men's work was away from home and contact was maintained with the religious center, the Goddess religion was unchallenged .
After exodus from the Sahara, contact between the tribes was maintained by boat and the culture was centrally nurtured from Malta. The problems arose with those tribes that had no sailing and navigation traditions and were located in regions far away from the sea. They had no regular contact with the center on Malta. Those who had settled in the Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia, in Anatolia and in southern Russia, developed large-scale agriculture that kept the men near to home, and they gradually assumed a more prominent role in the tribe. Those agricultural areas appear to have been the first places where young men refused to volunteer for sacrifice, after participation in the Sacred Marriage. They had tasted the exaltation of temporary kingship wearing the purple robe that denoted semi-deity status. In prosperous and happy times, there had been no need for a homegrown human sacrifice. Therefore, it began to be play-acted or a prisoner was substituted. This prolonged a young prince's exalted position as the bridge between the deity and the people and he became accustomed to a very pleasing existence. When difficult times arose and a sacrifice became necessary, why should he be eager to give all that up in exchange for hypothetical re-incarnation in a newborn body? The earliest written evidence we have of this refusal is found in the Gilgamesh Epic of about 2,700 bce., part of which describes Gilgamesh's search for the elixir of eternal life. In the following quote from N. K. Sandar's translation of "The Epic of Gilgamesh" Gilgamesh expresses his doubts about the truth of reincarnation. We also see that, so very early in history, the Chief Priestess was already placed under supervision of a sky-god, whom she calls father, and the Sacred Marriage is ridiculed:
"Come to me Gilgamesh, and be my bridegroom; grant me seed of your body, let me be your bride and you shall be my husband. Kings, rulers and princes will bow down before you; they shall bring you tribute from the mountains and the plain. Gilgamesh answered “Glorious Ishtar, If I take you in marriage, what gifts can I give in return? What ointment and clothing for your body? I would gladly give you bread and all sorts of food fit for a god. I would give you wine to drink fit for a queen, but as for making you my wife - that I will not. Your lovers have found you like a brazier which smolders in the cold, a backdoor which keeps out neither squall of wind nor storm, a castle which crushes the garrison, pitch that blackens the bearer, a battering ram turned back from the enemy. Which of your lovers did you ever love for ever? Listen to me while I tell the tale of your lovers. There was (1)Tammuz, the lover of your youth, for him you decreed wailing, year after year. (2) You loved the many colored roller (?) but still you struck and broke his wing; now in the grove he sits and cries "kappi, kappi, my wing, my wing". (3) You have loved the lion, tremendous in strength: seven pits you dug for him, and seven. (4) You have loved the stallion magnificent in battle, and for him you decreed whip and spur and a thong, to gallop seven leagues by force and to muddy the water before he drinks. (5) You have loved the shepherd of the flock; he made meal-cake for you day after day, he killed kids for your sake. You struck and turned him into a wolf; now his own herd-boys chase him away, his own dogs worry his flanks. (6) And did you not love Ishullanu, the gardener of your father's palm grove? He brought you baskets filled with dates without end; every day he loaded your table. Then you turned your eyes on him and said "Dear Ishullanu, come here to me, let us enjoy your manhood, come forward and take me, I am yours". Ishullanu answered: "What are you asking from me? Why should I come to such as you for food that is tainted and rotten?" (Gilgamesh then continues:) "But when you heard his answer he was changed into a blind mole, deep in the earth, one whose desire is always beyond his reach". "And if you and I should be lovers, should not I be served in the same fashion as all these others whom you loved once?". When Ishtar heard this she fell into a bitter rage, she went up to high heaven. Her tears poured out in front of her father Anu and Antum, her mother. "My father, Gilgamesh has heaped insults on me, he has told over all my abominable behaviour, my foul and hideous acts" etc. etc.
Obviously the Goddess' way of life had collapsed in Mesopotamia and patriarchy had taken over, although the priestesses were still very noticeable. It would be many centuries in the future before a philosophy would be developed which was able to organize and execute a devastating and almost successful attack on literally all aspects of the Goddess and replace the monolithic structure of the Goddess religion by installing a male dominated form of polytheism.
One of the unnatural changes, which took place, is clearly expressed in the Gilgamesh Epic when King Gilgamesh insists on being the first to sleep with every new bride, before the bridegroom is allowed to. Gilgamesh was portrayed as a physically very strong individual who also happened to be king with all authority associated with that position. No one had been able to stop him until Enkidu blocked his way:
"The bride waited for the bridegroom, but in the night Gilgamesh got up and came to this house. Then Enkidu stepped out, he stood in the street and blocked the way. Mighty Gilgamesh came on and Enkidu met him at the gate. He put out his foot and prevented Gilgamesh from entering the house, so they grappled, holding each other like bulls. They broke doorposts and the walls shook, they snorted like bulls locked together. Gilgamesh bent his knee with his foot planted on the ground and with a turn Enkidu was thrown. Then immediately his fury died" (P. 69).
This is a typical example of how the new male dominated religion was corrupting the caring and respectful traditions of the past. There is little doubt that this is exactly what happened. Enkidu belonged to the old religion that cared for the earth and all that lived on it, while Gilgamesh represented the newselfish attitude, there was no middle way because the inversion of the basics laws of behaviour had been total. This was one of the many reasons why so many young men from Atlantic Europe volunteered to fight the new order to restore justice and normality, not unlike what happened during World War I and II, the wars fought to end all wars. The ancient traditions of the Goddess had obviously been badly perverted already at this early date. This is clearly expressed in a quote by Frymer Kenski in "In the Wake of the Goddesses":
"The dynasty of Kish was founded by Enmebaragesi, a contemporary of Gilgamesh, who it now appears may have been a woman" (p. 79)
The name Enmebaragesi tells a story:
en. - .me - eba - ara
- age - esi
This lady was no queen, and she did not found a dynasty, but she may have been a priestess. Her "name" tells us in no uncertain terms that the time of the Goddess was over, for ever.
With the breakdown of the old order, the Great Goddess of our ancestors was fractured into a plethora of more or less significant goddesses, some of which were given sex changes, others became warriors or witches, most were married off to the new sky-gods and god-kings and placed in subservient positions. Human characters and weaknesses of all sorts were assigned to recently invented gods and goddesses, from alcoholism to cruelty, cheating, brawling, weirdness etc. Several fearsome gods were associated with lightning and thunder, gods who walked and rode horses on the clouds and whose swords and spears were lightning bolts. This now being the age of writing, many were well documented by the new clergy among the Hittites, Egyptians, Sumerians, Greeks and Romans.. For all their temporary prominence, the newly created pantheon left no impression upon the population that had been unable to forget the loving Goddess of the past. In fact the new polytheistic mythology existed only in writing, having been invented by the patriarchal clergy who wanted to destroy the ancient Goddess mythology. and way of life. When the new monotheistic religion became established, reportedly by Moses, it had no trouble disposing of the godly weirdoes. Perhaps even to this day it has not succeeded in eliminating the ancestral Goddess from any of the "converted, or evangelized" populations, not even from the Jews themselves, many of whom still revere their Shekina, while Roman Catholics and others revere the mother of Jesus: Mary.
It was the Luvian priesthood in Kizzuwadna which had the original idea of turning all the attributes of the Goddess' faith inside out, creating a negative image of the old religion, in their switch to patriarchy. They then decided to accept this negative image of the ancient gylanic faith as their own male-controlled polytheistic religion. In doing so they changed the attractive holistic character of the old faith into dualism, which meant the introduction of confrontation and discord into all aspects of life. The foundation was thus laid for the well-organized and aggressive woman-despising, proto-Judaic religion. Where this happened is not yet clear, but it was probably in Nerik, an important Luvian cult-town in the Hittite province of Kizzuwadna, Anatolia. The priesthood's library of clay tablets has apparently been found in Nerik, but Nyland (2001) has not been able to learn anything about the find. When the tablets are published, we may know more. Who the Luvian priests were that decided to invert every aspect of the ancient faith, is not yet known, but the process they set in motion is still with us today. Their main goal is expressed in the word "armageddon", ar.-.ma-age-ed.-.do-on.:
It ordered a many-pronged attack on the established order. With the goal of destruction of the Goddess religion in mind, the leadership of the new male religion drew up a task list. It was decided to work towards:
The decision to create a variety of new languages and scripts required highly educated scholars and schools in which to train them. Linguistics became the first academic subject to be developed and taught in institutions that later evolved into our universities, a tradition that began about 2,000 bce. Confused remnants of this once great discipline of linguistics are still being taught in our universities today, but the ancient science has been forgotten.
Inventing a new language when there is only one existing and no example is available to go by, may sound like an impossible task. A new and practical language did not come out of thin air or a dream. Fortunately for the Luvian priests, the ancient language was extremely logical and well organized. It had been the product of much earlier linguists in West Africa who had made up groups of word- and thought-associations. They had assigned each such group of words a basic root syllable, made up of vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV), such as:
aba: priest, rectory, advantage, surpass, shade
This language structure allowed plenty of opportunity for manipulation. Any associated information could be attached or agglutinated to the first syllable. Methods were slowly developed which could convert and mutilate the language in such a manner that the final product was not recognizable as related to Saharan, but had its own rules of grammar and structure. The first step in this direction was the complete reversal of the periphrastic word order of Saharan; samples borrowed from Aulestia (p. a30):
negation+auxiliary verb+complements+ main verb
The genius who invented this reversal of the ancient periphrastic word order created the basic structure of the "family of Indo-European languages", something none of our modern linguists have been able to fathom, so far. The highly professional Luvian priests thus laid the foundation for a large number of invented languages and language families that looked like they were genetically related but were instead artificial.
That the established Neolithic order was deliberately turned topsy-turvy is shown in the meaning of many important words, which were reversed such as:
woman to man: andre (woman) which became andros (male) but in reality was an abbreviation of andrezale (fond of woman). This is the reason Edo Nyland will not support the use of the word "androcratic", supposedly meaning "male-dominated".
black to white: the Saharan word u'it / u'itsu (tar) was used to make the Dutch word "wit", English "white", cold to hot: hotz (cold) became "hot" in English, "heiss" in German. German "weiss".
hot to cold: kalda (heat) became "kalt" in German, "cold" in English. (In Latin "caldus" still means "hot".)
friend to foe: the Bible tells us that a "host" is an enemy, armed might; this agrees with Basque hostu/ohostu (to rob, to pillage). Yet "host and hospitable" are now words for "friend" in English.
good to bad: the highly respected male clergy of the Goddess was called Abade (Priest). By removing the two outer vowels, our English word "bad" was created. This game of word distortion and meaning reversal was carried on during the next four millennia in all invented languages. A word such as ashera, from ashola-era (care-ing) was used to create our English word "ash", because "ashera" was also the name of the tree planted beside the Goddess' altar and the Bible had ordered the tree to be burned to ashes. (Deut. 12:3 and 2 Kings 23:15; asherim is plural).
TWO IDEOLOGIES COLLIDE
Archaeologist Dr. Marija Gimbutas in her book "The Civilization of the Goddess" (p.396) came to a somewhat different conclusion. She believed strongly in the existence of the Indo-Europeans. The Indo-European society she said, was warlike, exogamic, patriarchal, patrilineal and patrilocal, with a strong clannish organization and social hierarchy which gave prominence to the warrior class. Their main gods were male and usually depicted as warriors. There is no possibility that this pattern of social organization could have evolved out of the Old European matrilineal, matricentric and endogamic balanced society. Therefore the appearance of the Indo-Europeans in Europe represents a collision of two ideologies, not an evolution. Edo Nyland took this train of thought one step further by suggesting that this collision between ideologies was the result of planned religious chicanery. He could not agree with Gimbutas that Indo-Europeans were involved in this, because the Indo-European theory is probably not correct.
The early religion and civilization had been a holistic one. Male and female had complemented each other in mutual respect and a well-balanced division of labor and responsibilities. The women ruled the home base while the men ruled anything outside that, including fishing, exploration, big game hunting etc. The coming of male domination, which demanded to control all, meant that this former desirable state of affairs was turned topsy-turvy into dualistic confrontation between the sexes. The newly indoctrinated males also wanted to be shown the respect formerly accorded the woman, to dominate her and use and control her at will. The priests wanted to make sure that paternity was always known, and that never again would the children and the children's inheritance be handled through the female line. The result was that married life for many women became hell on earth. The German word for wife, "Frau" expresses this mentality well; it was coined from fa-arau, afa (happy) arau (discipline), "happy under discipline" and the Prussians' insecurity made sure that this discipline was enforced. Here follow some more changes that were brought about by the reversal of the Goddess' attributes.
The advance of patriarchy with its insistence on gathering riches and making and using weapons of destruction, as well as its selfishness, had removed the people from living natural lives in a healthy world. First they were part of, and inseparable from creation, but now the new definition of the word "creation" tells us that nature's wealth had been turned over to a select group of people: .k.-.re-ati-on.;
oke okergabe pristine
"Pristine gift to the blessed faithful".
All the peoples in Europe knew that all this was going on and did not like what they heard and what the travelers saw, especially in the eastern Mediterranean. The ancient status quo was forcibly being overthrown and they recognized the warning sign. Something had to be done to stop the epidemic from coming any closer, and they did it the best way they could. That's why Odysseus and his men sailed to the Eastern Mediterranean and into a huge tragedy; described in The Sea Peoples.