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COLEOPTERA, Nitidulidae --  <Images> & <Juveniles>


          Several genera of nitudilids are known to have predaceous habits.  Carpophilus mutilatus Erich. is an extensive feeder on aphids on corn in Barbados.  Most species of the genus Cybocephalus are predaceous, both as adults and larvae, on Coccidae, especially Diaspinae.  Riley (1882) reported two species predaceous on Chionaspis in western North America.  C. flavipes Reit and C. seminulum Baudi are believed to effectively control Parlatoria blanchardi Targ. in North Africa (Balachowsky 1928).  The first named species is wholly a desert species and thus is well adapted for life in date producing areas of northern Africa.  Several generations occur annually, and adults are present throughout the year.  Carpophilus californicus Horn is an aggressive predator of the cyprus bark scale, Ehrhornia cupressi Ehr. in California (Clausen 1940/62).


          Females of Carpophilus rufifrons Reit. lay their eggs underneath female scales of Aulacaspis pentagona Targ., and sometimes among newly hatched larvae that have not yet left the protection of the scale cover.  A thin-walled cocoon is constructed on the foliage by the mature larvae, and this is covered with the remains of host insects and other material (Silvestri 1910a).  Cybocephalus sp. is a predator on larger larvae and pupae of Aleurocanthus spp. in Java (Clausen & Berry 1932).  The white larvae are sluggish and remain on the same leaf during the entire feeding period if sufficient food is available.  They have a close resemblance to larvae of several species of the coccinellid genus Scymnus that attacks the same host.  They pupate in a cell in the soil rather than on the foliage, and do not form a cocoon (Clausen 1940/62)


References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library ]