File: <dryinid.htm>†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† [For educational purposes only]††††††† Glossary††††††††† ††<Principal Natural Enemy Groups >†††††††††††† <Citations>†††††††††††† <Home>


HYMENOPTERA, Dryinidae (Chrysidoidea) (formerly Bethyloidea) -- <Images> & <Juveniles>


Please refer also to the following link for details on this group:


††††††††††††† Dryinidae = Link 1


††††††††† Dryinidae. -- These are rare species, and most males and females are morphologically distinct.Some females are wingless and resemble ants. The antennae have ten segments, and the front tarsi of the female are usually pincerlike. The peculiar -front tarsi of some females in this family are deployed for holding the host during oviposition.Most dryinids are parasitoids of nymphs and adults of Homoptera.Their larvae feed internally on the host, although during most of their development a part of the body of the larva protrudes from the host in a saclike structure. The parasitoid, when full grown, leaves the host and spins a silken cocoon nearby. Polyembryony occurs in some species..


††††††††† There are ca. 1,410 described species found worldwide. They are all solitary wasps whose larvae are parasitoids on other insects. The only known hosts are Hemiptera, particularly leafhoppers.


†††† †††††Adults are usually small, to a maximum length of 11 mm. Males are mostly fully winged but females are often completely wingless and therefore resemble ant workers.


††††††††† Eggs are oviposited in the host with a sharp ovipositor and the larvae spend the early stages feedinginternally on the host but when larger they start to protrude from the abdomen of the host and develop a hardened sac-like "case" for protection.They continue feed on the host, which is finally killed.


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References:†† Please refer to<biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:MELVYL Library ]


Askew, R. R.1971.Parasitic Insects.Amer. Elsevier Publ. Co.316 p.


Dean, H. A. & J. C. Bailey.1961.J. Econ. Ent. 54:1104-06


Finnamore, A.T. & D. J. Brothers. 1993. Superfamily Chrysidoidea (pp. 130-160). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.


Kieffer, J. J.1914.Das Tierreich. Lief. 41:1-595.


Olmi, M. 2002. Description of two new species of Dryinidae from Botswana: Bocchus martellii and Gonatopus martellii (Hymenoptera Chrysidoidea). Boll. Zool. Agr. Bachic. (Ser. II) 34 (3), 273-280.


Olmi, M. 2004. New species of Dryinidae and Embolemidae from Madagascar (Hymenoptera Chrysidoidea). Frustula Entomologica (2002) (N. S.) XXV (XXXVIII), 86-109.


Olmi, M. 2004. A contribution to the knowledge of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) of Northern Mozambique. Oriental Insects 38: 353-372.


Olmi, M. 2005. A contribution to the knowledge of  Afrotropical Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Entomologistís Monthly Magazine, 141: 233-247.


Olmi, M. 2006. A catalogue of Dryinidae and Embolemidae of South Africa, with descriptions of new species (Hymenoptera Chrysidodea). Frustula entomologica (2005)(N.S.) vol. 28-29 (41-42): 1-57.


Olmi, M. 2007. New species of Afrotropical Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea), with description of a new genus and a new subfamily. African Invertebrates, 48: 199-232.


Olmi, M. 2007. Apodryininae of Madagascar and South Africa (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). Frustula entomologica (N.S.), 30 (43): 1-46.


Olmi, M. 2008. New species of Dryinidae from the Afrotropical Region (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea). Spixiana 31: 215-221.


Perkins, R. C. L.1905.Bull. Hawaii Sug. Pl. Assoc. Exp. Sta., Div. Ent. 1:1-69.


Ponomarenko, N. G.1978/1987.Family Dryinidae (Dryinids).In:G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2.Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst., Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi).1341 p.


Richards, O. W.1939.Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 89:185-344.