FILE: <bc-begin.htm                                                                                                                                                                               <General Index>                                       <Navigate to Main Menu >




                                       Basic Course



------ Please CLICK on desired underlined categories & then on file names. [To search for subjects, depress Ctrl/F]


Manipulation of Natural Enemies & the Environment



Introduction & Scope of Biological Control

Experimental Design & Sampling



National/International Organizations Active in BioControl

Systematics & Biological Control



History of Biological Control

Analysis of Successes in Biological Control



Concepts in Population Ecology Important to BioControl

Economic Gains From Biological Control



Biological Characteristics of Arthropodophagous Organisms

Biological Control of Weeds



Ontogeny Sex Determ., Parthenogenesis, Host Selection

Biological Control of Medical & Veterinary Arthropods



Foreign Exploration For Beneficial Organisms

Arthropod Pathology



Quarantine Procedures During Importation

Integration of Other Pest Control Methods



Colonization, Recovery & Evaluation of Natural enemies

Trends & Future Possibilities






This set of outlines and readings is compiled specifically for Entomology 129 and 129-L, "Introduction to Biological Control" presented at the University of California, Riverside. The course consists of 2 lecture and 2 laboratory units per week.  The majority of students will probably find some extra instructor contact time necessary; therefore, the laboratory is accessible for additional work at night and at certain times during the day and on weekends. The instructors are available for consultation during unscheduled hours.  A number of oral quizzes interspersed with written examinations will be given, and a specific date will be designated by which time the quiz must have been taken. The oral quizzes will also serve as discussion sections. A knowledge of the lecture, assigned textbook materials and laboratory experiments is expected.  It is believed that the material presented offers a sound overview for those students who will pursue additional advanced courses in biological control. Emphasis is on those aspects which have yielded the greatest number of control successes: the acquisition, culture, establishment and manipulation of new natural enemy species. The numerous citations are meant to cover only that material which will familiarize the student with the subject matter in a broad sense. Appreciation is expressed to Professors P. H. DeBach, C. A. Fleschner and S. E. Flanders (all deceased) who have taught this course in previous years and who have made valuable contributions. Further acknowledgment is made to Professors C. P. Clausen, B. R. Bartlett, T. S. Bellows, T. W. Fisher, R. D. Goeden, D. Gonzalez, G. Gordh, I. M. Hall, R. F. Luck, J. A. McMurtry, E. R. Oatman, S. N. Thompson and P. H. Timberlake of the Department of Entomology for their counsel. Appreciation is also expressed to the numerous students who have contributed to the acquisition of information presented while enrolled in this course in previous years.





Course Outline


Section 1 <ENT129.1>  Introduction and Scope of Biological Control

     Economics, Important Terms, References


Section 2 <BC-4.htm >  National and International Organizations Active in Biological Control

     International Institute of Biological Control , L'Organisation Internationale de Lutte Biologique, United States Department of  Agriculture,  Individual Countries, References


Section 3 <ENT129.3>  History of Biological Control

     Insect Predation, Insect Parasitoidism , Biological Control in the 18th Century, Biological Control in the Early 19th Century, Biological Control in the Late 19th Century Biological Control in the 20th Century, References


Section 4 <ENT129.4>  Concepts in Population Ecology Important to Biological Control

     Early Period, Contemporary Period, References


Section 5 <ENT129.5>  Biological Characteristics of Arthropophagous Arthropods

     Groups of Parasitoids, Hyperparasitism, Autoparasitism, Indirect Hyperparasitism, Facultative Hyperparasitism, Multiple Parasitism, The Imago or Adult Parasitoid Mating, Ovigenesis, Host-feeding, Ovisorption, References


Section 6 <ENT129.6>  Ontogeny, Sex Determination, Parthenogenesis, Host Selection, Polygenes

     Ontogeny, Sex Determination and Parthenogenesis, Host Selection, Polygenes and Extranuclear Inheritance, References


Section 7 <ENT129.7>  Foreign Exploration For Beneficial Organisms

     Guidelines in Foreign Exploration, Procedures in Planning and Preparation For Explorations, Recognition of Promising Natural Enemies Abroad, Good Collection Sites Precautions, References


Section 8 <ENT129.8>  Quarantine Procedures During Importation

     History in the United States, Quarantine Policy at the University of California, Quarantine Procedures, References


Section 9 <ENT129.9>  Colonization, Recovery & Evaluation of Natural Enemies

     Colonization, Direct Field Releases of Imported Organisms, Ecological Factors Influencing Success or Failure, Release Numbers, Redistribution, Recovery.  Prediction of Success, Evaluation, References


Section 10 <ENT129.10>  Manipulation of Natural Enemies and the Environment.

     Justification, Reasons for Manipulation, Methods Employed,  Special Details, References


Section 11 <ENT129.11>  Experimental Design & Sampling

     Importance, Approaches, Methods, Sampling Routine, Techniques For Evaluation, Methods For Detecting Predation/Parasitism, References


Section 12 <ENT129.12>  Systematics & Biological Control

     History, Importance of Taxonomy to Biological Control, Natural Enemy Identification, Biological Control Contributions to Taxonomy, Sources of Taxonomic Expertise References


Section 13 <ENT129.13>  Analysis of Successes in Biological Control.

     Island Theory, Multiple Versus "The Best" Species, Clausen's 3-Host Generation/ 3-Year Rule, Single Larval Parasitoid Importations, Single Pupal Parasitoid Generalizations, Pest Groups, Natural Enemy Groups, References


Section 14 <ENT129.14>  Economic Gains From Biological Control

     Cost Effectiveness, Biological Control From Naturally Occurring Organisms, Estimation of the Benefits and Costs of Classical Biological Control, References


Section 15 <BC-38.htm > Biological Control of Weeds

     Losses and Numbers of Weeds, Concepts and Techniques Unique to Biological Weed Control, Emphasis Biological Weed Control.  Other Natural Enemies, Current Research Areas, Characteristics of Effective Phytophagous Arthropods, Population Regulation Mechanism, References


Section 16 <BC-37.htm >  Biological Control of Arthropods of Medical & Veterinary Importance

     Overview, Mosquitoes, Synanthropic Diptera, Snails, References


Section 17 <BC-50.htm >Arthropod Pathology.

     Types of Diseases, Practical Usage, References


Section 18 <ENT129.18>  Integration of Other Pest Control Methods.

     Need For, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Frequently Used Terms, Pest-Upset Versus Pest Resurgence, Drawbacks of Chemical Control Selective Pesticides, Factors Determining Physical Selectivity, References


Section 19 <BC-6.htm >  Trends & Future Possibilities

     Complexities, Stimulation to Theories in Population Dynamics and Ecology, Future of Classical Biological Control, Future of Integrated Control

                     Future of Insect Pathology, Future of Biological Weed Control, Future of Biological Control of

             Medically Important Pests,