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  Parts of a Butterfly

  Life History


  Spotting Butterflies

  Butterfly Diversity

  Butterfly Conservation and Enjoyment




  Anise Swallowtail,  Papilio zelicaon

  Clodius Parnassian,  Parnassius clodius 

  Eastern Black Swallowtail,  Papilio polyxenes

  Eversmann's Parnassian,  Parnassius eversmanni 

  Giant Swallowtail,  Papilio cresphontes

  Old World Swallowtail,  Papilio machaon

  Oregon Swallowtail  Papilio bairdii oregonia

  Palamedes Swallowtail,  Papilio palamedes

  Phoebus Parnassian,  Parnassius phoebus

  Pipevine Swallowtail,  Battus philenor

  Polydamas Swallowtail,  Battus polydamas

  Schaus' Swallowtail,  Papilio aristodemus

  Short-tailed Swallowtail,  Papilio brevicauda

  Spicebush Swallowtail, Papilio troilus

  Tiger Swallowtail,  Papilio glaucus 

  Two-tailed Tiger Swallowtail,  Papilio


  Zebra Swallowtail,  Eurytides marcellus



  Becker's White,  Pieris chloridice beckerii

  Cabbage White,  Pieris rapae

  California Dogface,  Colias eurydice

  Checkered White,  Pieris protodice

  Chiricahua Pine White,  Neophasia terlootii

  Cloudless Giant Sulphur,  Phoebis sennae

  Common Sulphur,  Colias philodice

  Creamy Marblewing,  Euchloe ausonia

  Dogface Butterfly,  Colias cesonia

  Dwarf Yellow,  Nathalis iole

  Falcate Orangetip,  Anthocharis midea

  Great Southern White,  Ascia monuste

  Little Yellow,  Eurema lisa

  Mead's Sulphur,  Colias meadii

  Olympia Marblewing,  Euchloe olympia

  Orange Sulphur,  Colias eurytheme

  Orange-barred Giant Sulphur,  Phoebis philea

  Pima Orangetip,  Anthocharis pima

  Pine White, Neophasia menapia

  Queen Alexandra's Sulphur,  Colias alexandra

  Sara Orangetip,  Anthocharis sara

  Sleepy Orange,  Eurema nicippe

  Statira,  Phoebis statira

  Tailed Orange,  Eurema proterpia

  Veined White,  Pieris napi

  White Angled Sulphur,  Anteos clorinde



  Acmon Blue,  Plebejus acmon

  American Copper,  Lycaena phlaeas

  Ares Metalmark

  Atala,  Eumaeus atala

  Blackburn's Bluet

  Blue Metalmark

  Blue Copper,  Lycaena heteronea

  Bog Elfin,  Callophrys lanoraieensis

  Bramble Green Hairstreak, Callophrys affinis


  Bronze Copper,  Lycaena hyllus

  Brown Elfin,  Callophrys augustus

  Cassius Blue,  Leptotes cassius

  Colorado Hairstreak,  Hypaurotis crysalus

  Cycad Butterfly,  Eumaeus minijas

  Early Hairstreak,  Erora laeta

  Eastern Pine Elfin,  Callophrys niphon

  Eastern Tailed Blue,  Everes comyntas

  Edith's Copper,  Lycaena xanthoides editha

  Edwards' Hairstreak,  Satyrium edwardsii

  Gorgon Copper,  Lycaena gorgon

  Gray Hairstreak,  Strymon melinus

  Great Purple Hairstreak,  Atlides halesus

  Great Gray Copper,  Lycaena xanthoides

  Greenish Blue,  Plebejus saepiolus

  Harvester,  Feniseca tarquinius

  Henry's Elfin,  Callophrys henrici

  High Mountain Blue,  Plebejus glandon franklinii

  Lupine Blue,  Icaricia icariodes 

  Lustrous Copper,  Lycaena cupreus

  Mormon Metalmark,  Apodemia mormo

  Moss Elfin,  Callophrys mossii

  Nelson's Hairstreak,   Callophrys nelsoni

  Nivalis Copper,  Lycaena nivalis

  Northern Blue,  Lycaeides idas

  Olive Hairstreak,  Callophrys gryneus

  Orange-bordered Blue,  Lycaeides melissa

  Orange-veined Blue,  Lycaeides melissa ?


  Purplish Copper,  Lycaena helloides

  Red-banded Hairstreak,  Calycopis cecrops

  Ruddy Copper,  Lycaena rubidus

  Shasta Blue,  Lycaena melissa

  Silver-banded Hairstreak,  Chlorostrymon


  Silvery Blue,  Glaucopsyche lygdamus

  Sonoran Blue,  Philotes sonorensis

  Spring Azure,  Celastrina argiolus

  Swamp Metalmark,  Calephelis muticum

  Tailed Copper,  Lycaena arota



  American Painted Lady,  Cynthia virginiensis

  Amymone,  Cystineura amymone ?

  Atlantis Fritillary,  Speyeria atlantis

  Baltimore,  Euphydryas phaeton

  Banded Daggerwing,  Timetes chiron ?

  Blue Wing

  Bog Fritillary,  Proclossiana eunomia

  Bordered Patch,  Chlosyne lacinia

  Buckeye,  Precis coenia

  California Tortoiseshell,  Nymphalis californica

  California Sister,  Limenitis bredowii

  Compton Tortoiseshell,  Nymphalis vau-album

  Crimson-banded Black

  Crimson-patched Longwing,  Synchloe janalis ?

  Definite Patch

  Diana,  Speyeria diana

  Edwards' Fritillary,  Speyeria edwardsii

  Eighty-eight Butterfly,  Diaethria clymena

  Empress Louisa,  Asterocampa sp.

  Fatima,  Anartia fatima

  Florida Leafwing,  Anaea floridalis

  Florida Purplewing,  Eunica tatila tatilista

  Gillette's Checkerspot Leanira,  Chlosyne leanira

  Goatweed Butterfly,  Anaea andria

  Gray Comma, Polygonia comma

  Great Spangled Fritillary,  Speyeria cybele

  Gulf Fritillary,  Dione vanillae

  Hackberry Butterfly, Asterocampa celtis

  Harris' Checkerspot,  Chlosyne harrisii

  Janais Patch

  Julia,  Anthocharis sara julia ?


  Lorquin's Admiral,  Limenitis lorquini

  Malachite,  Siproeta stelenes bipalgiata

  Meadow Fritillary,  Boloria bellona

  Milbert's Tortoiseshell,  Aglais milberti

  Mimic,  Hypolimnas misippus

  Monarch,  Danaus plexippus

  Mountain Emperor,  Chlorippe montis

  Mourning Cloak, Nymphalis antiopa

  Nokomis Fritillary,  Speyeria nokomis

  Painted Crescent,  Phyciodes picta

  Painted Lady,  Cynthia cardui


  Pearl Crescent,  Phyciodes tharos

  Phaon Crescent,  Phyciodes phaon

  Queen,  Danaus gilippus

  Question Mark,  Polygonia interrogationis

  Red Admiral,  Vanessa atalanta

  Red-spotted Purple,  Limenitis arthemis astyanax

  Regal Fritillary,  Speyeria idalia

  Ruddy Daggerwing,  Marpesia petreus

  Satyr Anglewing, Polygonia satyrus

  Silver-bordered Fritillary,  Boloria selene

  Snout Butterfly, Libytheana bachmanii

  Tawny Emperor,  Asterocampa clyton 

  Variegated Fritillary,  Euptoieta claudia

  Viceroy,  Limenitis archippus

  Waiter,  Marpesia coresia

  West Coast Lady,  Vanessa carye

  White Admiral,  Limenitis arthemis

  White Peacock,  Anartia jatrophae

   Zebra,  Heliconius charitonia



  Arctic Grayling,  Oeneis bore

  Chryxus Arctic,  Oeneis chryxus

  Common Alpine,  Erebia epipsodea

  Creole Pearly Eye,  Lethe creola

  Eyed Brown,  Lethe eurydice

  Gemmed Satyr,  Cyllopis gemma

  Georgia Satyr,  Neonympha areolatus

  Great Basin Wood Nymph

  Large Wood Nymph

  Little Wood Satyr,  Megisto cymela

  Magdalena Alpine

  Mitchells' Marsh Satyr,  Neonympha mitchelli ?

  Northwest Ringlet,  Coenonympha sp.

  Ochre Ringlet, Coenonympha sp

  Pearly Eye,  Lethe portlandia

  Prairie Ringlet,    Coenonympha sp

  Red Satyr,  Megisto rubricata

  Red-bordered Brown

  Red-disked Alpine,  Erebia discoidalis

  Theano Alpine

  White-veined Arctic



  Common Checkered Skipper,  Pyrgus communis

  Common Branded Skipper

  Dakota Skipper,  Hesperia dacotae

  Flashing Astraptes

  Guava Skipper

  Horace's Duskywing,  Erynnis horatius

  Lace-winged Roadside Skipper,  Amblyscirtes


  Least Skipperling,  Ancycloxypha numitor

  Long-tailed Skipper,  Urbanus proteus

  Sandhill Skipper,  Polites sabuleti

  Silver-spotted Skipper,  Epargyreus tityrus

  Whirlabout,  Polites vibex

  Yehl Skipper,  Poanes yehl

  Yucca Giant Skipper,  Megathymus yuccae

  Zabulon Skipper






      Peterson & Pyle (1993) noted that, Watching butterflies is a visual activity; like birdwatching or birding. it trains the eye.  But we can usually approach butterflies more closely than we can birds.  We do not need binoculars to see them well.


      Most of you who are fascinated by butterflies, if you live in the eastern or central parts of the United States or Canada, will want to own A Field Guide to the Butterflies.  Or, if you live in the West.... A Field Guide to Western Butterflies.  These guides offer shortcuts in recognizing even the most confusing butterflies, using little arrows that point to the special features or marks by which one kind of butterfly may be known from another.  Some, like the Monarch, are readily distinguished from all other butterflies except for one-- its mimic, the Viceroy.  In the Field Guide an arrow points to the black line across the lower wing, a line that the Monarch lacks.


      Even a person who is colorblind can become skilled at identifying most butterflies by the shape of the wing, the pattern, venation, and even the manner of flight; but, for most of us, color is the first step....


      Many groups of butterflies are basically similar in color.  Sulphurs are usually yellow, fritillaries orange, blues blue, wood nymphs brown.  Basic color is a useful first clue when putting names to them, but color alone is not enough to identify most butterflies on the species level.  Most sulphurs, for example, are yellow.  You must also look at other details to narrow your butterfly down to a Common Sulphur, a Dogface, and Orange Sulphur, or whatever.  Nevertheless, color is step number one.


     There are literally hundreds of species of butterflies in North America.....  Some of the most familiar butterflies are those that feed on the nectar offered by the common roadside flowers.


      Parts of a Butterfly.  The diagram shows the makeup of a typical butterfly.  You need to become familiar with its parts for identification.  Every butterfly has four wings, each with an upper side (above) and an underside (below).  The wings may be held in an open or closed position, depending upon what a butterfly is doing-- basking in the sun, hiding from predators, or courting, for example.  The colors on the wings come from scales.  These are tiny shingles that cover both butterflies and moths, setting them apart from all other insects.  Some of these scales are colored by pigments, others are shaped so they bend the light like a prism to create iridescent or metallic colors.  Because scales fall off or fade as a butterfly ages, its colors may change somewhat.  The patterns on the wings serve many functions-- camouflage (such as false eyespots to fool predators), attracting mates, and so on.  These patterns may vary from place to place and often differ between sexes.


      Peterson & Pyle (1993) refer to the upper- and undersides of the wings; to the base, cell, tip, and margins or borders of wings, and to forewings and hindwings.  All these are labeled on the diagram.  The wings and legs attach to the thorax, the middle of the body between the head and the abdomen.  On the head are the large, many-faceted eyes, the knobbed antennae (moths have pointed ones), and the coiled, drinking-straw tongue or proboscis.  Usually the body parts are brown or black, but they may be covered with colorful, furry scales.


      Life History.  Butterflies have four life stages.  The adults mate and the female lays eggs, which hatch into tiny caterpillars or larvae.  These, feeding on particular kinds of host plants, grow and shed their skins.   Finally, out comes the chrysalis or pupa.  Within this case, one of the greatest miracles in nature takes place as the larval material rearranges itself to become the adult butterfly.  When it is ready, the butterfly emerges, spreads and dries its wings, and begins the cycle once more.


      Identification.  Just like birds, most butterflies possess field marks-- special features that will help you in telling them apart.....  Other facts-- such as locality, plant association, and flight period-- help in identification as well.


      Spotting Butterflies.  First you must find butterflies.  The most important factor is sunshine.  While some butterflies come out on cloudy days, most are sun worshipers.  Different species fly at different times, from early spring to late autumn, and a few even fly in midwinter as long as the days are sunny and warm.  Butterflies seek flowers, so you must do the same.  Not all gardens and wildflowers have nectar that is equally attractive to butterflies, so you will want to learn which flowers in your area are their favorites.  Phlox, thistle, milkweed, butterfly bush, and dandelions are always good.  Butterflies also love tree sap, rotting fruit, carrion, and animal scat.  Damp patches of sand or mud attract butterflies-- swallowtails, sulphurs, blues, and skippers are avid mud-puddlers.  When you can identify the plant on which the butterfly's caterpillar feeds, you have another good clue to finding it.


      Having once located butterflies, you then need to approach them ever so gently.  Move slowly and make no quick movements.  This way you can creep very close-- close enough to take a butterfly onto your finger or to observe it with a hand lens.  Binoculars are useful for spotting butterflies that are too high, far, or wary to approach.


      Butterfly Diversity.  The word diversity refers to how many different kinds there are.  In North America, butterflies are about as diverse as birds, much less so than flowers.  Most that accompany this section are common species.  Others are especially beautiful or interesting for their natural history.  Their colors and patterns range from brilliant and striking to soft and simple.


      Scientists don't all agree on how many butterfly families there are.  Within the brush-footed family there are several groups that others consider to be separate families.  Regardless of family names, you will quickly see how all longwings fit together but differ from fritillaries, for example.  It is more important to get to know the butterfly itself as a living creature than to worry about classification.  With common sense and open eyes, you will gain a feel for evolutionary relationships among butterflies.  Observing them and coloring their pictures are useful ways of getting started.


      Butterfly Conservation and Enjoyment.  Many butterflies can live only in certain places.....  If those places are destroyed, the butterflies die out. .....several endangered species that prove this point-- Schaus' Swallowtail, Atala, Mitchell's Marsh Satyr, and the Dakota Skipper.  Rarities like these should be collected sparingly, if at all.  But for the most part, it is habitat destruction rather than collecting that threatens rare butterflies.  If you go on to study insects in depth, you will probably form a collection.  With care and common sense, insect collecting need not be damaging and it is necessary for the progress of entomology (the scientific study of insects).  But most butterfly lovers would prefer to enjoy butterflies alive.  They do so by watching, photographing, or gardening for butterflies.





     The largest and some of the most colorful butterflies belong to the family Papiliionidae, which includes the swallowtails.  Most swallowtails have tails on their hind wings that serve to distract birds from the butterfly's body.  The family also includes the very unique waxy white and red-spotted parnassians, which live in mountains of the northern states.  Swallowtails occur in most parts of the world.


Spicebush Swallowtail, Papilio troilus  <LEP1>   (COLOR PICTURE)   (SKETCH)


     This butterfly occurs in the eastern United States, its name coming from the caterpillar's host plant.  Often found in fields and gardens, especially near woods.  Here it gathers nectar on bush honeysuckle.  The velvety black wings and body are yellow -spotted.  Two rows of bright orange spots enclose starry clouds of blue or green scales on the hindwings.


Pipevine Swallowtail,  Battus philenor  <LEP2 >  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Small greenish spots run around the edges of the wings.  The forewings are jet black, but the hindwings with their tails shimmer with a brilliant blue or blue-green iridescence.  The caterpillars feed on poisonous pipevines, which give the adults an awful taste.  Birds avoid them and several other butterflies that have come to mimic the Pipevine.  The example here is on Japanese honeysuckle.


Tiger Swallowtail,  Papilio glaucus  <LEP3>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH-1)   (SKETCH-2)


     Common in every eastern city, this big bright swallowtail prefers phlox and thistle for nectar.  A similar species lives throughout the western United States.  Both are lemon-yellow with black tiger-stripes.  The underside, as shown in the drawing, has a field of blue patches along the outer part.  Orange spots run along the outer edge of the hindwing.  Here it is on garden phlox.


Palamedes Swallowtail,  Papilio palamedes  <LEP4>  (COLOR PICTURE)   (SKETCH-1)   (SKETCH-2)


     This species is especially abundant in the southeastern woods of the United States.  Palamedes has very broad wings enabling it to fly well.  The lower surface is generally dark brown with yellow spots.  A row of orange chevrons crosses the hindwing, each lined with brilliant blue.  Orange-red spots edge the wing to below the long, rounded tail.


Giant Swallowtail,  Papilio cresphontes  <LEP5>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is the largest butterfly in North America, reaching almost 6 inches across.  The huge, saddled caterpillar, known as the Orange Dog, feeds on citrus.  It resembles the dropping of a bird, so that predators usually avoid it.  The wings are mostly black with yellow bands above, yellow with black bands below.  Both sides have an orange spot near the tip of the body, with blue crescents.  Two Giants are shown feeding on the nectar of lilac.


Zebra Swallowtail,  Eurytides marcellus  <LEP6>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species has the most pronounced tail of all North American swallowtails.  Black stripes alternate with creamy white bands, and a scarlet streak crosses the middle of the hindwing.  A pair of red spots, then two blue ones, lead down to the long tail.  This striking butterfly is found only where pawpaw grows as the larvae feed on this plant.


Anise Swallowtail,  Papilio zelicaon  <LEP7>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species and its relative differ from the Tigers by having yellow bands across black wings instead of black stripes on yellow.  Blue spots rim the hindwings, leading down to the black-pupilled orange spot inward from the black tails.  Anise Swallowtails commonly seek mates on mountaintops.


Two-tailed Tiger Swallowtail,  Papilio multicaudata  <LEP8>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     It sports a pair of tails on each hindwing.  The bright yellow wings and abdomen carry narrow black stripes.  A field of blue liens inside the marginal yellow spots, and the two spots below the tails are red-orange.  Two-tailed Tigers soar through western canyons where wild cherries provide nectar and host-plant forage.  The picture shows one visiting teasel.


Short-tailed Swallowtail,  Papilio brevicauda  <LEP9>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species occurs only in the Maritime region of Canada.  Like other black swallowtails, its larval host plants are in the carrot family.  Its color is very black, with yellow spots, giving each spot an orange flush toward the outer edge.  There is some blue between the yellow spot rows of the hindwing.


Eastern Black Swallowtail,  Papilio polyxenes  <LEP10>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is a common swallowtail in gardens, meadows and wetlands of the Rockies.  Bright orange spots parallel the yellow spots below, with clouds of blue scales between them.  Only the corner spot near the body is orange above.  It occurs commonly in gardens around carrots.


Schaus' Swallowtail,  Papilio aristodemus  <LEP11>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)

     Sometimes called the Ponceanus Swallowtail, it is an endangered species.  Destruction of its tropical hardwood hammock habitat in Florida has brought it near extinction.  Efforts have been made to save it.  The general color below is mustard yellow with brown bands.  The large patch on the hindwing is rusty-red, lined by sky-blue on its outer edge.  It is shown feeding on nectar of red hibiscus.


Old World Swallowtail,  Papilio machaon  <LEP12>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Mostly an arctic butterfly in North America, it is common in Europe and Asia.  The black wings have broad yellow bands and are peppered with yellow scales near the body.  A row of blue-scaled patches runs around the hindwing above the black tails, ending in a large orange spot that is rimmed with black and capped with blue.  Also called Artemisia Swallowtail


Oregon Swallowtail,  Papilio bairdii oregonia <LEP13>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A denizen of the hot basalt canyons of the Columbia River, this beauty is the official Oregon State Insect.  It has the same pattern as the Anise and Old World Swallowtails, but its bands and spots are deeper yellow.  The orange spot with a blue cap on the hindwing has a flattened black dot in it.  The dot is round on the Anise and missing in the Old World.


Phoebus Parnassian,  Parnassius phoebus  <LEP14>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Although the parnassians only slightly resemble swallowtails, they are indeed closely related.  Phoebus is waxy white in color, with charcoal edges to the forewing, black spots near the base, and two or three ruby spots in between.  Each hindwing, inwardly edged with black, bears a bright red spot near the middle.


Polydamas Swallowtail,  Battus polydamas  <LEP15>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Also called the Gold Rim because its black-velvet wings are neatly margined with yellow spots above.  The underside shows red spots on wings and body.  These are thought to warn birds away because the Polydamas acquires the bad taste of pipevines, its caterpillars' host plants.  Shown here feeding on lantana nectar.


Eversmann's Parnassian,  Parnassius eversmanni  <LEP16>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This butterfly occurs only in Alaska and Northwestern Canada in America.  It is the only yellow parnassian.  The male is brighter yellow with two red spots on each wing below, while the female is paler and has its red spots running together into a streak on the underside of the hindwing.


Clodius Parnassian,  Parnassius clodius  <LEP17>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Parnassians occur in the western United States.  Clodius flies lower in the mountains than Phoebus and differs by lacking any red spots on the forewing.  It is scarlet appearing only in the central spots of the hindwings.  Otherwise it is mainly milky white with black spots.  Females are dusky and largely transparent, and have more red spots underneath.  Caterpillars feed on bleeding hearts.





     The family Pieridae includes many common and familiar butterflies.  Sulphurs tend to live on plants in the pea family, while most of the whites have mustard family host plants.  Several pierids migrate in huge numbers, often out to sea.  While some are farm and garden pests, whites and sulphurs add a great deal of color to the world.  The marblewings and orangetips also in this family are among our most beautiful butterflies.


Chiricahua Pine White,  Neophasia terlootii  <LEP18>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     An autumn flier in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona, this white occurs around the ponderosa pines.  Its larvae feed on the needles.  The males appear distinctly different from the females.  The underside of the male is white with black veins and large black forewing patch.  The female is Halloween-colored: bright reddish orange with black veins, wing margins and forewing cells.


Pine White, Neophasia menapia  <LEP19>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Another browser on pine needles, the Pine White is found throughout much of the western United States.  Its upper side is all chalky white except for an intricate pattern of black around the outer part of the forewing.  The underside of the female hindwings is wreathed in red.  During some years this species erupts into vast flights of millions of individuals.


Veined White,  Pieris napi  <LEP20>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This butterfly occurs over much of the Northern Hemisphere.  Individuals can vary greatly in appearance.  It is a typical spring Veined White with heavily marked veins below.  The veins appear olive-gray against a white background.  Also called Mustard White after the family of its chosen host plants.  One of these is cardamon, on which it is shown nectaring.


Falcate Orangetip,  Anthocharis midea  <LEP21>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     It receives its name from the hooked wing tip, which is surrounded by orange in the male.  Otherwise white above with a black spot in the forewing cell.  The female is shown with her underside in view.  She is delicately but beautifully marbled with yellowish green scales.  It is found in spring in the East around cresses, mustards and nectar flowers.


Great Southern White,  Ascia monuste  <LEP22>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This large butterfly of the Southeast is mostly white, with black triangles pointed in along the forewing margins.  A very dark form of the females occurs, most often in summer.  Usually fairly numerous, the Great Southern White at times builds up into huge masses of butterflies which move out in search of fresh food.


Cabbage White,  Pieris rapae  <LEP23>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Occurs in every garden where plants of the cabbage family are grown.  They flutter about these plants in summer.  A European species, it was introduced over 100 years ago to North America.  Ever since it has spread to nearly every part of the continent.  Mostly a pure, creamy white, it has black spots on the forewings, charcoal forewing tips, and a yellow underside hue.


Sara Orangetip,  Anthocharis sara  <LEP24>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     In flight this species appears as two little orange flags fluttering on the breeze.  There is a white part connecting them.  A delicate spring butterfly of the West, it lives from the sea to the high mountains.  The male has milky white wings with brilliant orange tip bordered with black.  He sips nectar from wild strawberry.  The female has pale yellow wings, also with orange tips, and her hindwing undersides are delicately marbled with grass-green scales.


Checkered White,  Pieris protodice  <LEP25>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is a common butterfly of open spaces.  Through the seasons it varies greatly in appearance, but it always has a white base with darker markings.  Females tend to be more heavily spotted than males.  Marks on the underside of the forewings are charcoal-black, while those on the hindwing are olive-green.  The drawing shows it taking nectar from spreading dogbane.


Creamy Marblewing,  Euchloe ausonia  <LEP26>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     It is found mainly in western mountains.  The top of the wings are creamy white with black markings near the tips.  The undersides have a spring-green marbled pattern against a white background.  The butterfly's large round eye is bright green, and the furry scales on its head have a greenish sheen.


Becker's White,  Pieris chloridice beckerii  <LEP27>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This attractive butterfly inhabits the hot, dry dusty sagebrush desert of North America.  It is clear white above with a crisp pattern of black marks.  The forewing cell spot stands out as a thick black square.  These spots are repeated below, along with a pronounced network of yellow-green scales around the veins.


Olympia Marblewing,  Euchloe olympia  <LEP28>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species inhabits the open plains and Prairie of North America.  The narrow, rounded wings are linen-white, with a sparse network of marbled yellow-green bars crossing the hindwing beneath.  A delicate rosy flush radiates out from the base of some individuals.


Orange Sulphur,  Colias eurytheme  <LEP29>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This bright butterfly, common in summer over much of North America, has followed the spread of alfalfa.  Hence it is often known as the Alfalfa Butterfly.  The picture shows a female upper side, sunny orange with yellow-spotted black borders, black spot on forewing, and a red one on the hindwing.  The males's underside shows orange yellow with a row of brown dots and a silver spot.  Drawing shows a pair on the flower of red clover.


California Dogface,  Colias eurydice  <LEP30>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The name comes from the poodle shape on the forewing of this California State Butterfly.  The face shimmers with a rosy purple, surrounded by inky black.  A rich shade of tangerine orange colors the hindwings.  It is also known as the Flying Pansy.


Dwarf Yellow,  Nathalis iole  <LEP31>  (COLOR PICTURE)     (SKETCH)


     Also called the Dainty Sulphur, this species is a strong migrant.  It flies northward in spring, sometimes hundreds of miles.  The dark form female is pictured.  Lemon-yellow above with black tips and edging to the forewing, olive-green below except for orange inner forewing and dark marks.


Common Sulphur,  Colias philodice  <LEP32>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH-1)  (SKETCH-2)


     Butterflies probably got their name from a species such as this.  The upperside is truly buttery, with a coal-black margin.  Below it resembles the Orange Sulphur, with which it shares the alfalfa fields.


Dogface Butterfly,  Colias cesonia  <LEP33>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is similar to the California Dogface, except the poodle-heads are orange or else the whole upperside is bright yellow with black borders.  With a yellow forewing and green hindwing below, it resembles a leaf when at rest.  It is common in the California deserts.


Cloudless Giant Sulphur,  Phoebis sennae  <LEP34>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This large sulphur deserves the name.  It is clear sulphurous yellow above.  The underside has a greenish tone and varying amounts of reddish dots and speckling.  Great numbers gather in the South during some years, then make mass movements toward the North.  Some individuals reach destinations well beyond their breeding range.


Sleepy Orange,  Eurema nicippe  <LEP35>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species in fact does not seem sleepy when chased, shifting into a rapid zigzag flight.  The upperside is deep burnt orange with irregular black borders.  The orange carries over to the forewing below.  The underside of the hindwing is golden, with rusty speckling ranging from light bands to heavy clouds.


Queen Alexandra's Sulphur,  Colias alexandra  <LEP36>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A sulphur of the Rocky Mountains and surrounding areas.  The very bright yellow wings of the male are set off by sharp black margins.  The female is a paler shade of yellow, and has only a bit of charcoal dusting around the forewing tips.  Underneath, this butterfly is colored a cool green.  It perches on a host plant, the golden banner.


Pima Orangetip,  Anthocharis pima  <LEP37>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species is common in the Sonora Desert in early springtime, where it feeds on wildflowers.  The Pima is as colorful as any flower.  The combination of bright yellow wings with intensely orange wingtips gives a memorable impression.  The orange patches are bounded by black markings, and the hindwings are green-marbled below.


Mead's Sulphur,  Colias meadii  <LEP38>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH-1)   (SKETCH-2)


     This species obtained its name from a lepidopterist who discovered it in Colorado.  This brilliant sulphur flies in high mountain tundra.  The wings are colored deep orange with jet black borders.  The eyes are green, and the furry scales around the head are bright pink, as is the fringe of the wings.  The showy daisy is a favorite nectar flower.


Tailed Orange,  Eurema proterpia  <LEP39>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Also called the Proterpia Orange.  The tails are longer in winter generations of this southern species.  The male underside, as shown, should be colored golden-orange with rusty mottling.  The top edge of the forewings is banded with black above.  Shown nectaring on butterfly weed.


Statira,  Phoebis statira  <LEP40>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     One of the tropical giant sulphurs, Statira just makes it into the southern tips of the United States.  The upperside is largely yellow, with a broad white outer border.  The underside is yellow, with white crossing the middle of the forewing.  Sometimes seen migrating in great numbers out at sea.


Orange-barred Giant Sulphur,  Phoebis philea  <LEP41>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Like its relatives, this big beauty flies rapidly but dallies at flowers or to lay eggs on sennas.  The upperside is rich lemon-yellow, with a bright orange bar on the forewing.  Any combination of mottled pink and orange, with pearly spots in the middle of the hindwing, may be shown by the variable underside.  The female is deep yellow with black marks on an orange band across the bottom of the hindwing.


Little Yellow,  Eurema lisa  <LEP42>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A common immigrant from the South along the East Coast, the Little Yellow is found in all kinds of open places.  This mating pair show their undersides-- yellow with some black over scaling, rusty smudges, and a sooty mark near the upper edge of the hindwing.


White Angled Sulphur,  Anteos clorinde  <LEP43>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


A very large, unique butterfly, also called Clorinde.  It is resident in Texas but strays northward.  The broad wings are like white cotton sheets.  Each has a black spot in the cell, ringed with red.  A bright yellow bar stands out on the forewing, extending from the upper edge toward the middle.





     Mostly small and fast-flying, the gossamer wings tend toward metallic colors and iridescence.  The Gossamer Wing family Lycaenidae  includes hairstreaks and elfins, coppers, blue, the carnivorous Harvester, and the metalmarks   (sometimes put in their own family, ARiodinidae).  Most people overlook these tiny fliers, but they are well worth paying attention to for their brilliance and fascinating behavior.


Great Purple Hairstreak,  Atlides halesus  <LEP44>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Its other name, Great Blue Hairstreak, may be more suitable.  The upperside is the deepest, most brilliant iridescent blue, on the body as well as the wings.  A black border on the wings and greenish reflections may show, especially in the spots near the long tails.  Our largest hairstreak.  Its caterpillars feed on mistletoe, parasites of oak trees.


Atala,  Eumaeus atala  <LEP45>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A beautiful Bahamian butterfly.  Once common in Florida, Atala became nearly extinct in the United States due to habitat changes and development.  Just a few small colonies are known now, where the larvae feed on coontie.  On the underside, the wings are matte black with several rows of sapphire blue spots and a large fire-engine red spot that extends onto the abdomen as well.  The upperside is black on the edges and veins, otherwise bright shiny green with a green thorax and red abdomen.


Cycad Butterfly,  Eumaeus minijas  <LEP46>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This close cousin of Atala looks like it except for having more black above, the iridescence bluer green, and the hindwing row of spots lime green.  Beneath, the fringe and spots are blue-green, except for the red patch and abdomen.  Found in North America only in Texas.


Early Hairstreak,  Erora laeta  <LEP47>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Famous for its rarity and mystery.  Some collectors believe it lives mostly in the canopy of the eastern hardwood

forest.  The basic color beneath is a cool bluish green.  All of the spots as well as the wing fringes are brick-red with white edges.


Silver-banded Hairstreak,  Chlorostrymon simaethis  <LEP48>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Sometimes called Sarita.  The chartreuse wings are crossed by silvery-white bands.  Farther out there is a wavy chestnut brown area, next a row of frosty brown patches, finally the white wing fringes and white-tipped brown tails.


Bramble Green Hairstreak,  Callophrys affinis apama ? <LEP49>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     One of a number of green hairstreaks in the West.  The wings below are bright apple green with a warm brown band across the forewing and small white spots on the hindwing.  Caterpillars feed on lotus and buckwheat, become butterflies in springtime.


Olive Hairstreak,  Callophrys gryneus  <LEP50>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH-1)   (SKETCH-2)


     Here is a hairstreak of the East, often common around its host, red cedars.  The complex pattern of the underside involves a bright olive-green background crossed by rows of clear white bars.  Regions around the bars are reddish brown, and the outerband of spots is frosty.


Nelson's Hairstreak,   Callophrys nelsoni  <LEP51>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Different groups of Nelson's Hairstreaks feed on different western cedars and may be separate species.  Their coloration varies also.  The one shown is deep purplish with a flush of rusty through much of the forewing, white bars, black dots, frosty margin of the hindwing.


Colorado Hairstreak,  Hypaurotis crysalus  <LEP52>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A large spectacular hairstreak, the Colorado darts around scrub oaks in the Southwest.  Deep amethyst purple covers the upperside except for black margins, a black bar outside the forewing cell and bright orange spots in the corner of each wing.  The underside is warm bray-brown crossed by black-edged white bands, with orange spots and a band of sky blue around the outer edge.


Gray Hairstreak,  Strymon melinus  <LEP53>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Common countrywide, with a broad diet from hops to beans.  The wings range from a clear, dove gray to dark slate gray, above and below.  Rows of white bars are edged inwardly with black..  Just in from each tail lies a red-orange spot with a black pupil.  The tails and bright spot distract birds from the head and body of the hairstreak.


Red-banded Hairstreak,  Calycopis cecrops  <LEP54>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This pretty hairstreak abounds in the South.  Gray-brown wings are crossed by a broad red band, lined with white and with white hoops in the thickest red part.  Black spots run around the rim, and the one between the tails is often ringed with red.  A blue patch lies below the longer tail.


Edwards' Hairstreak,  Satyrium edwardsii  <LEP55>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Here two of these active butterflies are jostling for territory.  Most of the wing surface is tan, and most of the markings are black with white edges.  Inside the fringe a row of red-orange diamonds runs down to the tails.  Below the tails shine a sky-blue patch and a bright red streak.


Eastern Pine Elfin,  Callophrys niphon  <LEP56>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Like a very similar western species, this elfin feeds as a caterpillar on pine needles.  The colors below are different shades of brown and gray, with white streaks.  Brown triangles point inward from the frosted and checkered margins.


Henry's Elfin,  Callophrys henrici  <LEP57>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Although quite widespread in the East, this little butterfly is not common.  It is strongly two-toned below.  The inner part of the hindwing is chocolate, that of the forewing cinnamon, and the outer half of both is toasty brown.


Moss Elfin,  Callophrys mossii  <LEP58>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The western elfin was named for a Mr. Moss, but it also frequents mossy rock faces and outcrops.  The caterpillars feed on stonecrop.  The inner part of the wings is dark brown, the outer part reddish brown, margin is white.  Shown here on pearly everlasting..


Bog Elfin,  Callophrys lanoraieensis  <LEP59>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species occurs in moist, peaty places with Bog Coppers and Bog Fritillaries.  The zigzag markings below are smudged, and dark brown patches alternate with cocoa bands.  White scales run through the middle and margin of the underside.  Shown here nectaring on pearly everlasting.


Brown Elfin,  Callophrys augustus  <LEP60>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Both the larvae and adults frequent blueberry flowers.  Common in many kinds of places over much of North America, Brown Elfins vary in color.  The one shown is dark brown above and mahogany, reddish brown, below.  The inner half is darker than the outer part.


American Copper,  Lycaena phlaeas  <LEP61>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species is also found in Europe, where in England it is known as the Small Copper.  The forewing above is fiery orange with dark brown spots and borders.  The pattern is reversed on the hindwing, with red spots and bands against dusky brown.  The coloration beneath is similar except the orange is paler and the brown lighter and grayer with inky black spots.


Ruddy Copper,  Lycaena rubidus  <LEP62>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The most brilliant of our coppers is wholly copper except for tiny black dots and narrow black and white margins.  The female is duller and spottier.  As it flies, the male Ruddy flashes copper and silver because the underside is silky white.  It predominates in the western half of North America.


Tailed Copper,  Lycaena arota  <LEP63>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Shown here basking with its wings partly open, as is common posture for coppers.  This species has orange tails with orange and black markings next to them, like hairstreaks.  This male's upper forewing is brown.  The underside has alternating bands of cream and cocoa-color, and a broad orange streak through the forewing.


Bronze Copper,  Lycaena hyllus  <LEP64>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH-1)   (SKETCH-2)


     The upperside is deep brown with purplish highlights, black dots and a flaming orange zigzag band around the edge of the hindwings.  The orange border repeats below, and the dots are black, against the silvery white hindwing and the clear, pale orange forewing with its light gray edge.  A favorite habitat is the swamplands of the East.


Harvester,  Feniseca tarquinius  <LEP65>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is a relative of the coppers with a unique life history.  Its caterpillars are predators of certain woolly aphids.  The adults may visit the aphids also for honeydew.  The irregular, interior area of the forewings and the lower halves of the hindwings are pumpkin orange: the rest is black, with thin white fringes.


Blue Copper,  Lycaena heteronea  <LEP66>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The color is bluer than any true blue, yet its wing veins and other structures prove it to be an unusual kind of copper.  With the exception of the thin white fringe and black border, the male's entire upper surface shimmers metallic blue.  There are also greenish and silvery highlights, which are the effects of prism like scales.  This is strictly a western species.


Nivalis Copper,  Lycaena nivalis  <LEP67>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     An alternative name is the Lilac-bordered Copper, referring to the broad, irregular band of soft lilac-purple that surrounds the underside of the hindwing.  Orange crescents run through the lilac field.  The rest of the lower surface is a rich orange yellow, with black spots.  Nivalis refers to snow.  The insect inhabits the cool mountains of the West.


Gorgon Copper,  Lycaena gorgon  <LEP68>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A California copper that is associated with wild buckwheat, as are many gossamer-winged butterflies.  The male is purplish brown, but the female shown here has a complicated pattern of pale yellow-orange, black spots, and dusky brown borders and patches.  Light orange hoops run along the lower margin of the hindwing.  Shown here nectaring on false dandelion.


Purplish Copper,  Lycaena helloides  <LEP69>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     With the proper lighting, the brown wings of the male shine with a stunning irridescent purple.  The forewing borders are brown, the hind wing edging is orange and dots are black.  The underside of the hindwing is cocoa-brown with orange zigzags, the forewing light orange, with brown dots over all.  A common adaptable species whose larvae feed on docks.  Adults visit flowers such as balsamroot.


Edith's Copper,  Lycaena xanthoides editha  <LEP70>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Edith was the sweetheart of an early lepidopterist, who named this pretty butterfly for her.  It lives in the West, occurring in both Yosemite and Yellowstone national parks.  The female shown is dusky brown with pale orange patches bearing black spots.  A pale orange pattern encirciles the bottom edge of the hindwing.  Shown here probing forget-me-not.


Great Gray Copper,  Lycaena xanthoides  <LEP71>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Except for a black dot on the forewing, a touch of orange on the hindwing crescents, and the thin white fringe, the Great Gray Copper is just what the name implies.  The shade of gray is dark and brownish.  It is most abundant in the Midwest where it is found near wtercourses and milkweed flowers.


Lustrous Copper,  Lycaena cupreus  <LEP72>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A very metallic and bright little copper, and one of a number of butterflies that occur mostly on high mountain rockslides above timberline.  It is all clear, fiery orange-copper except for black dots and a black border with a white fringe.


Orange-veined Blue,  Lycaeides melissa ? <LEP73>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The color is not truly blue but deep brown, its veins lined with coppery orange scales.  A broad orange band along the lower part of the hindwings has black spots running into the blackish border, itself surrounded by a pale fringe.  This species occurs only in the mountains of Southern California.


Spring Azure,  Celastrina argiolus  <LEP74>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH-1)   (SKETCH-2)


     A favorite herald of spring.  An early-season female is shown with deep violet-blue and prominent black borders on the forewings and marginal spots on the hindwings.  As is true with many blues, its fringe is whitish.  Because its caterpillars feed on buds and blowers of many kinds of native shrubs, the Spring Azure occurs very widely.  Shown here examining Indian plum.


Eastern Tailed Blue,  Everes comyntas  <LEP75>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     There is also a western species.  In both the wings are the clearest deep silvery blue above on the males, though the female is gray.  The male shown also has black spots around the edge, the one nearest the little tail being orange-capped.  Beneath, the color is light gray, with spots of charcoal and two of orange by the tail.  The body, fringe, and tails are white.  Often found around clover.


Acmon Blue,   Plebejus acmon <LEP76>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Another name is the Emerald-studded Blue, because of shiny green-blue spots on the underside.  The one shown is a male, bright blue with black borders.  Broad, wavy, orange bands with black spots line the hindwings.  Feeds on wild buckwheat over a wide range in North America.


Orange-bordered Blue,  Lycaeides melissa  <LEP77>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The black body and brown wings of the female shown are speckled with metallic blue scales.  Orange borders are scalloped with brown dots, edged by a white fringe.  It is also known as the Melissa Blue, and a famous endangered race in New York State is called the Karner Blue.


Lupine Blue,  Icaricia icariodes  <LEP78>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The host plant is mainly wild buckwheat and not lupine.  The silvery gray underside has black spots, orange hoops with black caps enclosing gemlike blue dots.  The iridescent blue upperside is black-margined and white-fringed with orange hoops.


Cassius Blue,  Leptotes cassius  <LEP79>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This wanderer of the Deep South has a complicated pattern interplay of gray-brown and cream.  The two largest spots are black with blue centers and orange rims.


Northern Blue,  Lycaeides idas  <LEP80>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A mountain-loving species whose name comes from its range around the Northern Hemisphere.  It haunts trailsides and creeks, nectaring as shown in the drawing on yellow wild daisies and other wild flowers.  The color is deep indigo blue with a narrow black border and white fringe and body fur.


High Mountain Blue,  Plebejus glandon franklinii  <LEP81>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Found in the high country and arctic climates of North America.  It is colored above a gray-brown, shot with pale blue, while the warm gray underside has outstanding white spots.  The fringes are white with borders and a discal spot black.


Sonoran Blue,  Philotes sonorensis  <LEP82>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A light shiny blue uniquely marked with orange patches on the fore- and hindwings, black spots and checkered fringes.  It inhabits the mountains and deserts of California and Baja California.  It is memorable for its lovely pattern.


Blackburn's Bluet,   <LEP83>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Also called the Hawaiian Blue, this is one of only two butterflies native to those islands.  The pure grass-green underside and contrasting deep blue upperside with black edging make it very attractive in flight, but difficult to find at rest.


Greenish Blue,  Plebejus saepiolus  <LEP84>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The male has bright blue wings with greenish reflections.  Shown here is a female, with her soft brown, black-dotted underside.  She is perching on white clover, a common host plant.


Shasta Blue,  Lycaena melissa  <LEP85>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This female's wings are dark coppery brown with white fringes and orange zigzags, and with bright blue scales invading from the blue furry thorax outward.  Shasta Blues fly high in the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains.  They are also found on prairies, but are scarce in between.


Silvery Blue,  Glaucopsyche lygdamus  <LEP86>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species is among the very bluest of blues.  It flies over much of the North American continent, where it occurs in man y habitats.  The color is a light, sky blue with metallic highlights, black edge, and white fuzzy fringe.


Pixie,   <LEP87>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The Pixie does not look like the other metalmarks although it belongs with them.  It is mostly jet black and sports a bright red spot near the base of each wing, a row of scarlet around the hindwings, and yellow forewing tips.  It is especially common in Texas.


Ares Metalmark,   <LEP88>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Metalmarks are sometimes placed in their own family, Riodinidae.  The Ares is brown with black spots, its hindwings orange-flushed.  It flies in the Southwest, and like other metalmarks, it frequently perches with the wings spread out.


Blue Metalmark,   <LEP89>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH-1)   (SKETCH-2)


     A tropical butterfly that may reach to South Texas.  Its body and wings are metallic blue with black bars and spots, and its eyes are yellow.  The white fringe is checkered with black.


Mormon Metalmark,  Apodemia mormo  <LEP90>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A brightly colored small butterfly of the drier parts of the American West.  It varies greatly, but is typically dark brown, banded with deep orange, spotted and checkered with clear white.  Shown here visiting western wallflower.  The wild buckwheat is a favorite host plant of the larvae as well as a nectar source for adults.


Swamp Metalmark,  Calephelis muticum  <LEP91>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Found commonly in swamplands of the East, it is one of three northeastern metalmark species.  Shown is the group's typical metallic silvery bars.  It is otherwise a rusty brown crossed by rows of dark brown dots and marks.





     The Nymphalidae is the largest and most diverse butterfly family, numerous all over the world.  They range from small to large, and most are bright and colorful, with striking patterns.  Some, such as tortoiseshells, hibernate through the winter as adults; others migrate.  Traditionally, milkweeds  (including the Monarch) longwings and snouts have been placed in separate families Danaidae, Heliconidae and Libytheidae.  But they all have the tiny forelegs that give the family its name and show other signs that they are related.


Baltimore,  Euphydryas phaeton  <LEP92>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The Baltimore is the official State Butterfly of Maryland.  It has black wings with red-orange spots near the base and all around the edges, white spots and crescents in between.  Shown here on turtlehead, favorite food plant of the caterpillar.


Gillette's Checkerspot,   <LEP93>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is the only checkerspot of the West which is easy to identify.  Its broad, orange-red bands alternating with rows of white spots and black filling make its appearance unique.  Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks are favorite areas.


Leanira,  Chlosyne leanira  <LEP94>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The mountain forms and males are darker than females and checkerspots of the dry basin and range country of the West.  The ground color of the male is dark brown, its spots vanilla except for the outermost ones, which are orange.  Orange bars occur near the forewing tip.  The female's underside forewing is light orange, with yellow spots.  The hindwing shows a black chain and veins against a creamy yellow background.


Harris' Checkerspot,  Chlosyne harrisii  <LEP95>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species haunts moist meadows in the Northeast where irises and asters grow.  Shown here visiting an aster, the butterfly has broad black borders, orange spot-bands across the middle, and black and orange networks near the base.  Frequently numerous.


Phaon Crescent,  Phyciodes phaon  <LEP96>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The name comes from the pale crescent-shaped marking along the outer edge of the hindwing below.  Here shown on a favorite nectar source, the beggar's tick.  The rest of the hindwing is pale cheesy colored with brown marks and orange spots.  The forewing is orange with black and yellow patches.


Pearl Crescent,  Phyciodes tharos  <LEP97>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A familiar butterfly, known for its habit of flying out at other insects.  It frequently visits mud and flowers.  Here it is shown taking nectar from showy daisy.  The amount of blackish marking varies with sex and season, but the open orange middles of the wings typify most Pearl Crescents.  Frequently seen in sunny, flowery places during summer.


Painted Crescent,  Phyciodes picta  <LEP98>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This crescent is shown visiting alfalfa for nectar.  The hindwing is pale, clear yellow with a dark mark by the crescent.  The forewing is orange painted with black and white patches and a yellow tip.  These bright crescents fly along ditches and roadsides, laying their eggs on asters.


Janais Patch,   <LEP99>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Its black wings holds a small galaxy of white spots.  On the hindwings, great scarlet patches occur.  Like many other butterflies resident in Mexico and farther south, the Janais patch colonizes southern Texas until a cold winter drives it back.  It is attracted to the sweet nectar of yellow and pink lantana.


Definite Patch,   <LEP100>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is a checkerspot.  Its forewing has orange spots alternating with black, and a row of white dots along the edge.  Black lines encircle the white spots and bigger red patches on the hindwings.  The Definite Patch lives in thorny places in the Southwest.


Bordered Patch,  Chlosyne lacinia  <LEP101>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH-1)   (SKETCH-2)


     Also called Scudder's Patched Butterfly, it is widespread and common in the Southwest and Mexico.  The patch varies from place to place, the one shown here being a female from Texas that is visiting a favorite food plant, the sunflower.  Her borders are black with an outer row of yellow spots, an inner row of white dots.  There is a broad area of fiery orange, and black bases with orange spots.


Nokomis Fritillary,  Speyeria nokomis  <LEP102>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A large and rather rare fritillary of the southwestern mountains.  Because it occurs around moisture in generally arid areas, drainage and water diversion threaten its survival.  The female shown is taking nectar from a thistle, a favorite activity of the fritillaries.  The wings are olive green, banded with pale yellow toward the outside.  The spots in rows are shining silver, and the forewing is flushed with pink at the base.


Great Spangled Fritillary,  Speyeria cybele  <LEP103>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The upperside of the male and underside of the female are shown in the drawing..  Both are nectaring on scarlet cardinal flower.  The male is brilliant golden-orange, with a intricate pattern of black spots.  The female's hindwing is rich reddish-brown with a yellow outer band, the Aspangles being the silvered spots scattered across the wing and running around its rim.  A common species in the East and a favorite with butterfly gardeners.


Regal Fritillary,  Speyeria idalia  <LEP104>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is the largest fritillary and also one of the most specialized.  It prefers virgin prairies, which has made it rare ans such have been disturbed in the Great Plains and to the east.  The drawing shows it perching with its wings closed and showing an olive hindwing spattered with large silver spots.  The forewing is very bright orange with black marks and more silver around its edges


Edwards' Fritillary,  Speyeria edwardsii  <LEP105>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Named after a great pioneer American lepidopterist, this is another large fritillary of the West.  Its larvae feed only on violets.  The adults shown are visiting purple horsemint.  The underside is mostly bluish green, studded with big, metallic silver orbs.  Toward its base, the forewing has a pretty pink flush.


Variegated Fritillary,  Euptoieta claudia  <LEP106>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is not a true fritillary, lacing silver spots.  The name comes from a complex pattern of brown, white, and orange scaling on the underside.  Frosty white areas and veins run through the tan base color, while the inner part of the forewing is bright orange.  Eyespots are bluish-black.  The caterpillars feed on many kinds of plants, not common in most butterflies.  Every spring this resident of the South populates the northern states, only to die back with the frosts of autumn.


Diana,  Speyeria diana  <LEP107>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH-1)


     Diana, named for the Green goddess of the woods, is one of the most strikingly dimorphic butterflies.  The males and females look entirely different.  Here the male pursues the female on the wing.  He is fiery orange beyond a large coal-black wingbase.  The female has the same black middle part, but outside of it has pale bluish spots on the forewing and deep blue patches and bars on the hindwing.  It is believed that the blue coloration, unique among fritillaries, evolved to help her mimic the poisonous Pipevine Swallowtail.  This causes birds to avoid her.


Atlantis Fritillary,  Speyeria atlantis  <LEP108>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     There is a lot of variation in the Atlantis over geographic areas.  This species ranges across the northern part of the United States.  Eastern individuals will sometimes visit gardens, attracted by black-eyed Susans or other flowers.  It is hard to draw but simple to color, the border and all the spots being black.  The rest of the body is pumpkin-orange.


Bog Fritillary,  Proclossiana eunomia  <LEP109>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)

     This is a lesser fritillary that is especially fond of bogs.  The forewing is pale orange with black marks and two rows of yellow spots.  These rows carry over onto the hindwing, where bands of pale yellow alternate with bands of brick red.  It is shown on a plantain.


Meadow Fritillary,  Boloria bellona  <LEP110>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The tip of the forewings have a snipped-off appearance .  Another lesser fritillary, it is light orange with black markings.  A denizen of wet meadows, in the East and the West.  The one in the drawing is shown visiting a violet, on which the caterpillars feed and the adults may gather nectar.


Silver-bordered Fritillary,  Boloria selene   <LEP111>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A widespread fritillary of bogs and meadows, this one also occurs in Europe.  It is a lesser fritillary, but like the greater fritillaries it has silver spots on its underside.  The spots alternate with rows of reddish brown and tawny.


Queen,  Danaus gilippus  <LEP112>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Milkweed butterflies, such as the Queen and Monarch, are often placed in the family Danaidae.  The Queen has rich cinnamon wings with black borders and clusters of small white spots.  The black patches on the hindwings produce chemical perfumes, and show that this individual is a male.  He is nectaring on milkweed, the same plant that served as host to the caterpillar.  In Florida, Viceroys have evolved a dark race to mimic the Queens.


Monarch,  Danaus plexippus  <LEP113>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH-1)   (SKETCH-2)


     This is our best known North American butterfly, but it still holds many mysteries.  The bright orange Monarch has black veins and borders, with white spots around the edges and peach-colored patches in the black forewing tip area.  Common milkweed is its host plant which nourishes adults and larvae, and makes the Monarch poisonous to birds.  Viceroys mimic Monarchs, so birds ignore them as well.  Monarchs breed all across North America, but in autumn they migrate like birds.  A large proportion fly to Mexico or to California, where they spend the winter in huge clusters among the foliage of trees.  In springtime they return to their breeding grounds in the North.


Crimson-patched Longwing,  Synchloe janalis ?  <LEP114>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Frequently placed in the family Heliconidae to distinguish them from brush-footed butterflies, the longwings live in the American tropics and feed on passion flowers.  This species is sometimes found in Texas, here shown feeding on lantana.  It is jet black, the forewings have crimson patches, the hindwings a yellow streak along the top.


Julia,  Anthocharis sara julia ?  <LEP115>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The Julia's long wings are almost entirely clear.  They deep orange above except for a black spot along the upper edge.  The body is clothed in furry orange scales.  The caterpillars feed on passion flower vines.  It occurs in southern Texas and Florida, sometimes occurring in swarms.


Gulf Fritillary,  Dione vanillae  <LEP116>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This longwing is considered a fritillary because as with most butterflies it has brilliant metallic silver spots beneath.  On the hindwing and the tip of the forewing, these spots are set in a field of olive-gold.  The rest of the forewing changes to crimson-pink.  It is common across the South and all around the Gulf of Mexico.  It prefers flowers of the beggar's tick and lantana, and the caterpillars feed on passion vine..


Zebra,  Heliconius charitonia  <LEP117>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Occurring in the Southeast, this longwing haunts hammocks in the Everglades.  It is common where passion flower vines grown in woody spots, even in towns, as these are food for the caterpillar.  It is a beautiful sight to observe numbers of Zebras gathering in a tree for their evening's roost.  The color scheme is simple: yellow stripes and spots against a black velvety background.


Viceroy,  Limenitis archippus  <LEP118>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The Viceroy looks very much like the Monarch, although it is not closely related.  This mimicry gives it protection from birds that have learned to avoid the distasteful Monarchs.  Its deep orange color, black veins and borders, and white dots are like those of the Monarch.  But it also has a black line around the hindwing past the middle.  Viceroys occur around willows, especially along watercourses.  The banded admirals are close relatives.


Lorquin's Admiral,  Limenitis lorquini  <LEP119>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species occurs on the West Coast.  The upperside is basically blackish brown, crossed by bands of large creamy spots.  It is distinguished from the other banded admirals by its orange forewing tips.  The males establish and defend territories, often on willow branches.  The one in the drawing is shown visiting spreading dogbane, a preferred nectar source for many butterflies.


White Admiral,  Limenitis arthemis  <LEP120>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Occurring in southern Canada and the northeastern United States, it is also known as the Banded Purple.  However, its color is not really purple, but its black is rich and deep.  Beyond the milk-white bands lie rows of bright blue crescents, the innermost of these on the hindwings being capped with russet.  The preferred host plant is birch.


California Sister,  Limenitis bredowii  <LEP121>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species derives its name from the black with white bands that reminded someone of a nun's habit.  However, the wings also have a bright orange patch on the tip of the forewing.  Rusty orange bars highlight the wings, especially beneath, and the underside has purplish blue bands along the border and body.  Rotting plums and other fruits are sought out by Sisters.


Red-spotted Purple, Limenitis arthemis astyanax  <LEP122>  (COLOR PICTURE)   (SKETCH-1)   (SKETCH-2)


     It closely resembles Banded Purples, minus the bands, and is often regarded as the same species.  The upperside, shown in the drawing, is shiny blue-black, with blue concentrated toward the edges of the hindwings.  The underside is blackish brown with brick-red spots, blue-barred along the margins.


Pavon,   <LEP123>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Patterned like the admirals, this species is actually related to the hackberry butterflies.  Dusky whitish bands cross the wings, which shine deep purple when struck by direct sunshine.  The patches near the forewing tips glow bright orange.  Very different, the underside is light tan with a white band, black eyespots, and brown lines.  This species occurs primarily in Mexico, but occasionally drifts into Texas.


Milbert's Tortoiseshell,  Aglais milberti  <LEP124>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Tortoisshells have decidedly different upper and lower surfaces.  Milbert's above is chocolate brown with a two-toned band-- yellow inside, orange outer-- orange basal spots, and blue dots in the dark margin.  Below there is no such fire-rim pattern, just a dark brown basal half, tan band, and dark border.  Thus it blends exactly into tree bark.  It is widespread in North America, here shown on western sneezeweed.


Compton Tortoiseshell,  Nymphalis vau-album  <LEP125>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The name tortoishell comes from the blending of orange, tawny and black above.  There is one white spot on each wing, near the upper, outer edge.  The Compton lives in cooler woodlands, where it is camouflaged against tree trunks.  Predators are startled when it flies because of its bright colors.


California Tortoiseshell,  Nymphalis californica  <LEP126>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     In some years this species swarms in the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains.  The perch shown in the drawing is a common posture for brush-footed butterflies.  It shows part of the orange-brown upperside with its black patches and borders and white spots near the tips.  The underside is mottled brown, tan and frosty.


Question Mark,  Polygonia interrogationis  <LEP127>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     There are two seasonal forms of the eastern anglewing.  In summer forms the hindwings are almost completely black.  In the autumn form both the fore- and hindwings are bright reddish orange with heavy brown markings.  Both forms have a lilac-purple border, narrower on the black-spotted summer butterflies.  The autumn generation survives the winter as adults, which in turn produce the summer form generation.


Satyr Anglewing, Polygonia satyrus  <LEP128>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


          Similar to the tortoiseshells, anglewings possess ragged wing margins that help their dull undersides blend in with leaves and bark.  The Satyr is a butterfly of the West and the brightest of all anglewings.  It is fiery light orange turning to golden toward the tails of the hindwings, marked with inky spots and reddish brown borders.  The spiny caterpillars eat stinging nettle.


Gray Comma, Polygonia comma  <LEP129>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Commas and Question Marks are really anglewings.  The names refer to tiny silver marks on the underside of the hindwing.  Otherwise the underside is grayish brown with darker striations and a frosty forewing tip.  The upperside is reddish tawny, brown spotted and bordered, with orange dots in the broad hindwing border.  Commas fly away quickly, but usually return to one spot.


Mourning Cloak, Nymphalis antiopa   <LEP130>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species is easily identified by sight if not by name, as it has a unique coloration and pattern.  The body and the larger part of the wings are deep chocolate brown with maroon reflections.  Long rows of deep blue spots run all around the wings just inside the light yellow borders.  This species is really a tortoishell that flies all over and prefers elms and willows.


Waiter,  Marpesia coresia  <LEP131>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A common tropical species that is occasionally found in southern Texas.  The upperside is dark brown.  Beneath, as shown in the drawing, the crisp white inner half of the wings contrasts with the brown outer part.  A reddish streak lines the white part, another runs around the outer edge to the shorter of the tails, ending in a blue spot.  This pattern resembles a waiter's uniform.


Ruddy Daggerwing,  Marpesia petreus  <LEP132>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The wings have a strange shape that ends in daggertails.  They are colored ruddy orange, with dark brown stripes and tails.  It is a resident of southern Florida.  The caterpillars feed on fig leaves and the adult on fig fruit.  Close relatives are the Ruddy Daggerwing and Waiter.


Banded Daggerwing,  Timetes chiron ?  <LEP133>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is a tropical brush-foot that lives as far north as Texas and Florida.  The outer half of the underside is reddish tan, with two violet bands running across.  The inner half has rusty lines across a silky white background.  The body is white.


Florida Leafwing,  Anaea floridalis  <LEP134>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This brilliant butterfly may be found in southern Florida woodlands where croton grows.  The upper side is flaming red-orange, making it startling when it flies nearby.  Then, when the Leafwing alights, the bright color disappears.  The underside is colored like a dead leaf, and the wing shape enhances the camouflage.


Goatweed Butterfly,  Anaea andria  <LEP135>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The caterpillar's host plant is goatweed, from which the name derives.  It occurs commonly in the Southeast.  The female shown is tawny orange above with brown along the edges and invading the wings.  Individuals in the rainy season have longer tails that are colored violet, and more pointed wingtips than those of drier months.  Goatweed Butterflies are rapid flies, but are attracted to baits of rotting fruit.


Buckeye,  Precis coenia  <LEP136>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The large eyespots giving this species its name have yellow rims and black, blue, and violet centers.  Most of the remaining upper side is warm brown, but there are two orange bars on each forewing, a buff band outside them, and orange below the hindwing eyespots.  Among the many flowers visited by this rapid flier is plantain, on which the caterpillar also feeds.  Migrations occur in autumn.


Hackberry Butterfly, Asterocampa celtis   <LEP137>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The caterpillars are jade green and confined to leaves of hackberry trees for food.  Both caterpillar and chrysalis blend beautifully with the foliage.  When the adult closes its wings you may see a complicated pattern of brown lines on a purplish white background and rows of black, white-centered, yellow-rimmed eyespots.


Tawny Emperor,  Asterocampa clyton  <LEP138>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species is more common in the Southeast than elsewhere, feeding on hackberry.  Its forewings are colored rich reddish tawny, with black bars and bands and rows of golden spots.  The hindwings are tawny at the base, becoming black outwardly with rows of tawny-ringed black spots.  The individual shown in the drawing is visiting rotting orange persimmons.


Empress Louisa,  Asterocampa sp. <LEP139>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Discovered during the second half of the 20th Century, this hackberry butterfly occurs in South Texas and Mexico.  Her wings are a warm, light brown with blackish around the tips where there are white spots.  The unpupilled black eyespots around the hindwings have tan rims, and the hindwing scalloping is dark brown.


Mountain Emperor,  Chlorippe montis  <LEP140>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species occurs in canyons of the Southwest where hackberry trees occur in the wild.  The Mountain Emperor has the usual pattern for a hackberry butterfly which is lighter toward the body and darker outward, with white spots and black eye like circles.  However, its color is a richer, more red brown than that of most of its relatives.


Snout Butterfly, Libytheana bachmanii   <LEP141>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The Snout also feeds on hackberries.  It is outstanding by having a long snout that is formed by its palpi sticking straight out in front of its face.  It also goes through great migrations.  The upper side is dark brown with creamy spots toward the clipped wingtip and large tawny patches on each wing.  Beneath, the hindwing and forewing tip are mottled with mauve and cocoa.  The forewing base is orange.  The drawing shows it feeding on nectar of Florida dogwood.


Kamehameha,   <LEP142>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     One of two native Hawaiian butterflies, its name commemorates the former Hawaiian king.  The largest and brightest of the painted ladies, it may be found in forests and clearings on all the major islands of Hawaii.  The outer tip of the forewings is black with white spots.  The rest is brilliant red-orange with black markings.  Long brown hairs make the part of the wings near the body more ruddy than the rest.


Red Admiral,  Vanessa atalanta  <LEP143>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH-1)    (SKETCH-2)


     This caterpillar feeds on nettle almost everywhere from the sub-Arctic well into the tropics.  Red Admirals are frequently found basking in the sun and visiting rotting fruit and fresh flowers, such as the gumweed shown in the drawing.  The wings are deep velvety black.  The bands are vermilion red, with black dots in the band on the hindwing, ending in two blue spots near the body.  The forewing tips have white spots, and white crescents run all around the wing margins.  The species is commonly observed throughout North America.


West Coast Lady,  Vanessa carye  <LEP144>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Resembling the Painted Lady, this is a Pacific Slope species.  The field marks with which to distinguish it are: The bar in a black area at the end of the cell on the upper forewing is orange, the eyespots on the upper hindwing are large and blue, and the brown and white mottling below has a yellowish cast.  Otherwise the color above is orange-peel orange, with black markings and white spots.  The orange shows on the base of the forewing beneath.  The drawing shows it visiting cheeseweed.


American Painted Lady,  Cynthia virginiensis  <LEP145>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Similar to the other ladies except more pink, especially below on the lower half of the forewing.  The hindwing has blue spots which are prominent on the upper side and very large below, where they have black and yellow rings around them.  It is generally light brown below with white bands and network.  It is also known as the Hunter's Butterfly.  It is most common in the East.  The individual in the drawing is shown on red zinnia.


Painted Lady,  Cynthia cardui  <LEP146>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The larval host plant is thistle, where adults frequently are found.  Painted Ladies cannot withstand northern winters, but will fly north every year from milder climates to the south.  Because it can be found all over the world, the Painted Lady's other name is Cosmopolitan Butterfly.  The main color is salmon orange, more pink on the underside of the basal forewing.  White spots stand out on the black tips, and blue spots run around the hindwing.  The underside is mottled brown and white.


Amymone,  Cystineura amymone ?  <LEP147>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is a frail-looking little butterfly that sometimes flies long distances in great numbers.  It usually is found around the Gulf of Mexico and farther south.  The upper side is mostly gray, but the underside is usually shown because it perches with wings closed.  The underside is a pretty ochre-orange, crossed by bands of pearly white.


Fatima,  Anartia fatima  <LEP148>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     In South Texas, the Fatima flies in early spring and again in late autumn.  The ground color is blackish brown.  White spots lie in the forewing tips.  Vanilla bands sweep across all wings, ending in red spots.  More crimson spots make up an inner band on the hindwings.


Crimson-banded Black,   <LEP149>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     It may be found in South Texas, but is more rare than the Fatima.  Its simple, striking pattern is beautiful.  The velvety black wings have no markings other than the wavy, bright crimson band, and thin white crescents enhancing the scalloped edge of the hindwings.  It is shown here nectaring on beggar's tick, favored by many southern butterflies.


Mimic,  Hypolimnas misippus  <LEP150>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is a very unusual, exotic butterfly that is thought to have come to the West Indies with the slave trade.  It is found in much of the Old World.  The female shown in the drawing mimics the African Milkweed Butterfly, a relative of the Monarch.  Her wings are bright orange rimmed with black.  There are white patches in the black tips and white dots around the black margin.  It is sometimes called the Blue Moon because of the male's white orbs surrounded by iridescent blue, all set against a night-black background.  Shown here nectaring on lantana.


Florida Purplewing,  Eunica tatila tatilista  <LEP151>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The wings shimmer with an ultraviolet iridescence when extended in light.  In the shade they appear brown, the color of the outer, white-spotted parts in all lights.  It is common in the Everglades woodlands of south Florida.


White Peacock,  Anartia jatrophae  <LEP152>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A species of the Deep South and American tropics, it occasionally wanders north.  It normally perches warily with its wings closed.  The background is pearly white.  Pinkish-brown bands and orange lines and crescents mark the wings.  Two blue-centered, orange-rimmed eyespots lie in a brown band.  The outer margin is salmon orange.


Blue Wing,   <LEP153>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Indigo bands of the wings alternate with black.  The color is deeper than the pale blue of the water hyacinth on which it is shown perching.  White spots tip the forewings.  Although other kinds of blue wings occur farther south, this species barely reaches South Texas.


Malachite,  Siproeta stelenes bipalgiata  <LEP154>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The species was named for the mineral malachite, which has a lacy green pattern similar to that on the butterfly's wings.  They are colored pale jade, mixed with the dark brown that forms the border.  Malachites visit Florida and the West Indies, and sometimes in occur in Texas.  The individual in the drawing is visiting a spiderwort.


Eighty-eight Butterfly,  Diaethria clymena  <LEP155>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Another tropical species that turns up in Florida on rare occasions.  Its name derives from the black A88" pattern on the white underside.  The base of the underside forewing is pinkish red, the tip black-banded white.  The black upper side has light green bands on each wing.





     The family Satyridae may be a subgroup of the brush-footed butterflies.  Most of them are colored softly with browns and grays and rusts.  Most bear eyespots on their wings.  These false eyes serve as targets for birds.  Aiming for the eyes, they miss the butterfly's body.  Satyrs haunt woodland glades and meadows where their caterpillars feed on grasses.  Almost everywhere grasses grow, some browns fly, including in the high arctic.


Pearly Eye,  Lethe portlandia  <LEP156>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH-1)   (SKETCH-2)


     This species inhabits woods of the East where it perches on tree trunks and flies rapidly among the dappled shadows.  The color underneath is light brown, with a lilac hue and a pearly sheen.  Brown lines cross the wings, and an orange-like line runs around the rims.  The brown eyespots lie in a loose buff band and have orange rings around them and blue or pearly pupils.


Creole Pearly Eye,  Lethe creola  <LEP157>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The female rarely shows her upper side except in flight.  It is a light buckskin brown, with a pale tan area toward the edge.  A long row of black-brown spots runs through this lighter field.  The female will lay her eggs on maiden cane after the male locates her within the cane brake.


Eyed Brown,  Lethe eurydice  <LEP158>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The pair of Eyed Browns shown perching on a sedge head, are typical satyrs.  They occur in moist meadows of the Northeast and Midwest.  The upper side presents a warm cocoa-brown aspect with lighter tan patches and blue-black, white-centered, yellow-rimmed eyespots.  The pattern repeats below but the color is darker brown with still darker lines and more distinct eyespots.


Large Wood Nymph,   <LEP159>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Sometimes called the Blue-eyed Grayling, its eyespots are indeed blue and white, centered within black and yellow rings.  This species flies over much of the continent and exhibits many forms.  The one shown here has the forewing eyespots embedded in a large patch of canary yellow.  The rest is light brown striated with dark brown, the outer half of the hindwing paler.  It may be found in woods at their grassy edges, at sap or fruit or taking nectar on such flowers as alfalfa.


Great Basin Wood Nymph,   <LEP160>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The individual shown is visiting yellow sweet clover.  It is dark brown with a lighter fringe and pale yellow rings around its black eyespots.  The eyespots target bird attacks away from the body of the butterfly.  Sagebrush desert and dry, open woodland are is preferred habitats.


Ochre Ringlet, Coenonympha sp. <LEP161>   (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The main color of this brightest ringlet is ochre, i.e., a rich, reddish-gold.  The upper side is all ochre, as is most of the forewing below.  Its tip beyond the yellow-ringed black eyespot is grayish.  The hindwing is olive-gray, except for the buffy lightning-streak across it.  The Ochre Ringlet is very abundant in the Rocky Mountains.


Northwest Ringlet,  Coenonympha sp. <LEP162>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Common in the grasslands of the Pacific Northwest, it is colored like the Ochre Ringlet, except that the ochre is paler and the olive grayer.  It usually lacks the small eyespots.


Prairie Ringlet,    Coenonympha sp. <LEP163>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species is closely related to the Ochre and Northwest ringlets.  The forewing has an orange streak inward from the eyespot, and the hindwing is very olive.  Like other satyrs, the caterpillars feed on grasses.


Little Wood Satyr,  Megisto cymela  <LEP164>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species dodges and darts through tall grass with speed and skill.  It is the most common and widespread of the wood or grass satyrs.  It is warm brown overall with yellow-ringed, blue-black eyespots inside darker brown lines that edge the wings.


Georgia Satyr,  Neonympha areolatus   <LEP165>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH) .


     This beautiful small satyr has long oval eyespots with yellow rims and blue-dotted centers, each located within an ellipse of brick-red lines.  More red lines run along the edge and the base of the wings.  It occurs in the Southeast on grasses.


Gemmed Satyr,  Cyllopis gemmav <LEP166>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Named after the blue and silver eyespots, gold-rimmed, that run together, all set in a metallic silver patch on the hindwing.  Faint reddish lines run around the silver patch and across the reddish tan wings.  The Gemmed Satyr flies in grassy woods of the Midwest and South.


Red Satyr,  Megisto rubricata  <LEP167>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The species is found in oak woodlands of the arid Southwest.  The wings on the upper side are broadly copper-red with thick brown SKETCHs.  Each wing bears one eyespot, black with yellow rim and pale bluish center.


Mitchells' Marsh Satyr,  Neonympha mitchelli ?  <LEP168>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Because the bogs and marshy meadows that this butterflies requires have been drained or developed, the species is endangered.  Only in a few spots south of the Great Lakes does it survive.  Its color is like the Georgia Satyr except that the eyespots are rounder and more numerous.


White-veined Arctic,   <LEP169>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Arctics are a group of satyrs prevalent in the Far North and in high mountains.  They blend well with their backgrounds of rock, lichen and grass.  The species here lives in Labrador and Greenland.  Its forewing is olive-tan, the tip frosty gray like the hindwing with brown speckles.  A darker brown band crosses the hindwing, and the veins stand out crisply white.  The upper side of females is dull gray-brown, lighter tan on the outer hindwing.


Chryxus Arctic,  Oeneis chryxus  <LEP170>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The species flies from the arctic-alpine peaks all the way down to sagebrush land along the Rocky Mountains.  The female shown here, with her wings spread, is bright tawny, paler toward the olive-brown margins.  Her eyespots are black with tiny white pupils.


Arctic Grayling,  Oeneis bore  <LEP171>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species haunts the arctic tundra from Sweden to Siberia to Hudson Bay.  The forewing is reddish tawny with a frosty tip.  The frostiness overs much of the hindwing, which has a tan band near the outer edge and a brown one across the middle.


Magdalena Alpine,   <LEP172>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is the only all-black, unmarked butterfly in North America.  The color may weather to a soft brown plush.  Magdalena lives only on high mountain rockslides, where males fly up and down in search of females.  They pause to sip nectar from pink moss campion, which is where they may frequently be found.


Common Alpine,  Erebia epipsodea  <LEP173>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Sometimes named Butler's Alpine, it has a pattern typical of many alpines of the European Alps: chocolate brown wings ringed by clack, white-centered eyespots lying in cinnamon patches.  Newly emerged alpines shimmer with a purplish green iridescence.  They live in mountain meadows and clearings of the American West.


Red-disked Alpine,  Erebia discoidalis  <LEP174>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Bearing the common alpine color scheme of deep brown and rusty-red, this species lacks the eyespots of most other alpines.  The rusty disk shows below, but the brown is clouded with frosty gray scaling, especially the outer portions of the wings.  An Asian and Alaskan species, it also flies across Canada and southward to the Great Lakes.  Here is is shown nectaring on a dandelion.


Theano Alpine,   <LEP175>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The drawing shows two Theano Alpines confronting one another on leaves of marsh marigold, a perching site favored by these smallest of our alpines.  The high-country colonies tend to be tight but well populated.  Russet rings of spots surround the dark brown wings.  Beneath, the hindwing spots are yellow.


Red-bordered Brown,   <LEP176>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A large satyr, mostly found in Mexico, it inhabits pine woodlands on the edges of deserts.  There it flies in late summer and autumn.  The scalloped, velvety brown wings run to cocoa on the outer forewing, cinnamon-red on the hindwing border.




     Skippers resemble moths in some ways, with thick, hairy bodies and short wings.  Most are small and rapid flies, with a skipping motion.  Skippers that are triangular and tawny tend to be grass feeders, while the others use many host plants.  Skippers succeed in many sorts of habitats and love flowers and mud.  The belong to the family Hesperiidae.  The fast flying Giant Skippers have their own family, Megathymidae.


Zabulon Skipper,   <LEP177>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This species is common in the East.  The female shown is visiting blue violet for nectar.  Her wings are rusty red, heavily speckled with violet on the outer half.  The fringe and body are also reddish.


Yehl Skipper,  Poanes yehl   <LEP178>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This skipper of the Southwest flashes by in a golden blur.  Perched, it looks very orange, with pale yellow spots and orange legs.  Its gold-tipped antennae are short and hooked, as on most skippers.


Sandhill Skipper,  Polites sabuleti  <LEP179>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The manner in which this skipper is perching, with the hindwings in one plane and the forewings in another, is typical of many skippers.  Both the fore- and the hindwings are tawny orange with dark edges, and black dashes across the forewings.


Least Skipperling,  Ancycloxypha numitor  <LEP180>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This is one of our tiniest butterflies.  Its forewing is bright orange; hindwing, yellow-gold with light veins.  The orange repeats on the upper abdomen.  Otherwise the body is white and eyes black.


Whirlabout,  Polites vibex  <LEP181>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Another golden tawny skipper, brown about the edges, but orange fringed.  The black dash on the forewing is called a skipper's stigma.  The name refers to its speedy, orbiting flight.  It is common in Southeastern woodlands.


Common Checkered Skipper,  Pyrgus communis  <LEP182>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This skipper is very common in fields and vacant lots.  The wings are charcoal checkered with white; and the fringe is white and black checked.  There ire iridescent bluish furry scales on the body.


Horace's Duskywing,  Erynnis horatius  <LEP183>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The wings are soft in color but bear a complex pattern.  Generally they are chestnut brown, with pale spots around the hindwings, black patches and glossy white dots on the forewings.  The caterpillars feed on oak.


Lace-winged Roadside Skipper,  Amblyscirtes aesculapius  <LEP184>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


      Skippers occurring along the roadside all are rather similar in appearance.  However, this species is distinctive for the lacy pattern of creamy markings intersected by white veins against olive-gray wings.


Common Branded Skipper,   <LEP185>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The wings above are tawny basally, brown marginally, with a black stigma on the forewing and light fringes.  The gold pattern on the upper side is repeated in bright silvery marks underneath.  This species is found in many forms and many habitats across the Norther Hemisphere and always among grasses.


Dakota Skipper,  Hesperia dacotae  <LEP186>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This uncommon skipper is closely linked to native prairie grasslands.  It has become rare by the plowing and grazing of the prairies.  It survives in a number of nature reserves, where it visits purple coneflower.  Caterpillars feed on native grasses.


Guava Skipper,   <LEP187>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     Larvae of this heavy Latin American skipper feed on the leaves of guava.  The adults like the fruits.  It is colored with matte-black wings highlighted by white fringes, two scarlet spots on the forewing edge, and shiny blue-green streaks and reflections.  The red is repeated on its head, the blue on its body.


Silver-spotted Skipper,  Epargyreus clarus  <LEP188>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     A large and fast flier, this skipper is common in parks and gardens.  Here is is shown visiting Japanese honeysuckle.  There is a large silver patch on the underside of the hindwing, and a gold one on the forewing.  Otherwise the wings are a bright brown.


Long-tailed Skipper,  Urbanus proteus  <LEP189>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This spectacular skipper is common in the South.  It is so prevalent that it flies in vast migrations.  The wings are brown, the spots and head are golden.  Tails are gold-rimmed.  Long furry scales clothe the body, rendering it and the bases of the wings iridescent turquoise in sunlight.  Here is is shown nectaring on pickleweed.


Flashing Astraptes,   <LEP190>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     This tropical beauty has a turquoise body, and its head is blue-green.  The wing bases shimmer metallic sky-blue, and the outer forewing bars are opalescent, white but reflecting green.  All of this color is against a basic black.


Yucca Giant Skipper,  Megathymus yuccae  <LEP191>  (COLOR PICTURE)    (SKETCH)


     The various species of giant skippers that live in the Southwest all feed on yucca or agave as larvae.  The caterpillars burrow into the roots of those plants.  Giant Skippers fly at considerable speed.  The color is usually blackish brown with yellow patches and a white bar.






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Feltwell, J.  1992.  American Nature Guides.  Butterflies of North America.  Smithmark Publ. Inc., New York.

     192 p.


Holland, W. J.  1913.  The Butterfly Book.  Doubleday, Page & Col, New York.  382 p.


Opler, P. A. & G. O. Krizek.  1984.  Butterflies East of the Great Plains.  The Johns Hoplins University Press,

     Baltimore & London.  294 p.


Peterson, R. T. & R. M. Pyle.  1993.   Peterson Field Guide Coloring Books: Butterflies.   Houghton Mifflin Co.,

     Boston, New York.  66 p.