NATURALLY OCCURRING BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL
IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES
The importance of naturally occurring parasitism and predation has long been recognized in the eastern United States, and there have been efforts to guarantee its persistence and maximum impact in pest control. Investigators at North Carolina State University have been especially aware of the importance of native natural enemies. Some of the more active investigations into natural control in this area may be found in the references.
There is a successful case of biological control of Oxydia trychiata (Guenee) in Colombia regulated by Telenomus alsophilae Viereck from eastern North America (Bustillo & Drooz 1977, Drooz et al. 1977).
Axtell, R. C. 1969. Macrochelidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) as biological control agents for synanthropic flies. Proc. 2nd Internat. Cong. Acarol. 1967: 401-16.
Axtell, R. C. 1986. Status and potential of biological control agents in livestock and poultry pest management systems, p. 1-9. In: R. S. Patterson & D. A. Rutz (eds.), Biological Control of Muscoid Flies. Misc. Publ. 61, Ent. Soc. Amer., College Park, Maryland.
Axtell, R. C. & D. A. Rutz. 1986. Role of parasites and predators as biological control agents in poultry production facilities. Misc. Publ. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61: 88-100.
Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds) 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 1046 p.
Bustillo, A. E. and A. T. Drooz. 1977. Cooperative establishment of a Virginia (USA) strain of Telenomus alsophilae on Oxydia trychiata in Columbia. J. Econ. Ent. 70: 767-70.
DeLoach. C. J. 1964. Biology, ecology and description of Winthemia n. sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasite of the tobacco hornworm. Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina St. Univ., Raleigh.
Drooz, A. T., A. E. Bustillo,m G. F. Fedde and V. H. Fedde. 1977. North American egg parasite successful controls a different host in South America. Science 197: 390-91.
Fulton, B. B. 1940. The hornworm parasite, Apanteles congregatus Say and the hyperparasite, Hypopteromalus tabacum (Fitch). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 33: 231-44.
George, J. A., B. A. L. Nagy & J. W. Stewart. 1983. Efficacy of Dugesia tigrina (Tricladida: Turbellaria) in reducing Culex numbers in both field and laboratory. Mosq. News 43: 281-87.
Hensley, S. D., W. H. Long, L. R. Roddy, W. J. McCormick & E. J. Concienne. 1961. Effect of insecticides on the predaceous arthropod fauna of Louisiana sugarcane fields. J. Econ. Ent. 54: 146-49.
Huffaker, C. B., M. van de Vrie & J. A. McMurtry. 1969. The ecology of tetranychid mites and their natural control. Ann. Rev. Ent. 14: 125-74.
Jaynes, H. A. & E. K. Bynum. 1941. Experiments with Trichogramma minutum as a control of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 743. 42 p.
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Trichogramma in managing pest insect populations. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1387. 44 p.
Lawson, F. R. 1958. Some features of the relation of insects to their ecosystems. Ecology 39: 515-21.
Lawson, F. R. 1959. The natural enemies of the hornworms on tobacco (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 52: 741-55.
Lawson, F. R. & R. L. Rabb. 1964. Factors controlling hornworm damage to tobacco and method of predicting outbreaks. Tobacco Sci. 8: 145-49.
Lawson, F. R., R. L. Rabb, F. E. Guthrie & T. G. Bowery. 1961. Studies of an integrated control system for hornworms on tobacco. J. Econ. Ent. 54: 93-7.
1961 Legner, E. F. 1961. An ecological study of some foliage-feeding insects on young nonbearing apple trees in Wisconsin. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison. 139 pp.
1962a Legner, E. F. 1962. Changes in sex ratio of the eye-spotted bud moth Spilonota ocellana, over its adult emergence period. J.Econ. Entomol. 55(4): 559-560.
1962b Legner, E. F. 1962. Some biotic control factors affecting the eye-spotted bud moth, and red-banded and fruit-tree leaf rollers in Wisconsin. Entomol. Soc. Amer. North Cent. Br. Proc. 17: 115-117.
1962a Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman. 1962. Effects of Thuricide on the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana. J. Econ. Entomol. 5(5): 677- 679
1962b Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman. 1962. Foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on young nonbearing apple trees in Wisconsin. J. Econ. Entomo. 55(4): 552-554.
1962c Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman. 1962. Sampling and distribution of summer eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana (D. & S.), larvae and nests on apple trees. Canad. Entomol. 94(11): 1187-1189.
1963a Legner, E. F. and E. R. Oatman. 1963. Pupation sites of the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana (D. & S.), and differences in degree of development on two apple varieties in Wisconsin. J. Econ. Entomol. 56(5): 689-690.
1963b Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman. 1963. Natural biotic control factors of the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana on apple in Wisconsin. J. Econ. Entomol. 56(6); 730-732.
1964 Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman. 1964. Spiders on apple in Wisconsin and their abundance in a natural and two artificial environments. Canad. Entomol. 96(9): 1202-1207.
1965 Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman. 1965. Limitation on the pupal development of the eye-spotted bud moth in northeastern Wisconsin. J. Econ. Entomol. 58(2): 359-360.
Lingren, P. D. 1969. Approaches to the management of Heliothis spp in cotton with Trichogramma spp. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. by Habitat Managem. No. 1, Tallahassee, Florida (1969): 207-17.
Metcalf, Z. P. 1909. Insect enemies to tobacco. North Carolina Dept. Agr. Spec. Bull. 72 p.
Muma, M. H. 1958. Predators and parasites of citrus mites in Florida. Proc. 10th Intern. Congr. Ent. Montreal (1956) 2: 633-47.
Negm, A. A. & S. D. Hensley. 1967. The relationship of arthropod predators to crop damage inflicted by the sugarcane borer. J. Econ. Ent. 60: 1503-06.
Negm, A. A. & S. D. Hensley. 1969. Effect of insecticides on ant and spider populations in Louisiana sugarcane fields. J. Econ. Ent. 62: 948-49.
Nelson, F. R. S. 1979. Comparative predatory potential and asexual reproduction of sectioned Dugesia dorotocephala as they relate to biological control of mosquito vectors. Environ. Ent. 8: 679-81.
Neunzig, H. H. 1969. The biology of the tobacco budworm and the corn earworm in North Carolina with particular reference to tobacco as a host. North Carolina Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. No. 196: 1-76.
Oatman, E. R. 1985. Parasites associated with lepidopterous leaf miners on apple in northeastern Wisconsin. J. Econ. Ent. 78: 1063-66
Oatman, E. R. & E. F. Legner. 1961. Bionomics of the apple aphid, aphis pomi DeGeer, on young nonbearing apple trees. J. Econ. Ent. 54: 1034-37.
Oatman, E. R., E. F. Legner & R. F. Brooks. 1962. Bionomics of the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana, on cherry in Wisconsin. J. Econ. Ent. 55: 930-34.
Oatman, E. R. & E. F. Legner. 1964. An ecological study of arthropod populations on apple in northeast Wisconsin: Insect species present. J. Econ. Ent. 57: 978-83.
Oatman, E. R., E. F. Legner & R. F. Brooks. 1966. An ecological study of arthropod populations on apple in northeastern Wisconsin: species affecting the fruit. J. Econ. Ent. 59: 165-68.
Oatman, E. R. & E. F. Legner. 1964. Additional studies of the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana. J. Econ. Entomol. 57(2): 294.
Rabb, R. L. 1960. Biological studies of Polistes in North Carolina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 53: 111-21.
Rabb, R. L. 1966. Diapause in Protoparce sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 59: 160-65.
Rabb, R. L. 1969. Environmental manipulation influencing populations of tobacco hornworms. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. No. 1, Tallahassee, Florida (1969): 175-91.
Rabb, R. L. & J. R. Bradley. 1968. The influence of host plants on parasitism of eggs of the tobacco hornworm. J. Econ. Ent. 61: 1249-52.
Rabb, R. L. & F. R. Lawson. 1957. Some factors influencing the predation of Polistes wasps on the tobacco hornworm. J. Econ. Ent. 50: 778-84.
Rabb, R. L. & R. Thurston. 1969. Diapause in Apanteles congregatus. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62: 125-28.
Rabb, R. L., H. H. Neunzig & H. V. Marshall, Jr. 1964. Effect of certain cultural practices on the abundance of tobacco hornworms, tobacco budworms and corn earworms on tobacco after harvest. J. Econ. Ent. 57: 791-92.
Rabb, R. L., R. E. Stinner & R. van den Bosch. 1976. Conservation and augmentation of natural enemies, p. 233-54. In: C. B. Huffaker & P. S. Messenger (eds.), Theory and Practice of Biological Control. Academic Press, New York. 788 p.
Ridgway, R. L. & S. L. Jones. 1969. Inundative releases of Chrysopa carnea for control of Heliothis. J. Econ. Ent. 62: 177-80.
Sabrosky, C. W. & C. J. DeLoach. 1970. A new Winthemia (Diptera, Tachinidae) parasitic on the tobacco hornworm. Proc. Wash. Ent. Soc. 1970.
Swift, F. C. 1968. Population densities of the European red mite and the predacious mite Typhlodromus (A.) fallacis on apple foliage following treatment with various insecticides. J. Econ. Ent. 61: 1489-91.
Thurston, R. 1965. Effect of insecticides on the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), infesting burley tobacco. J. Econ. Ent. 58: 1127-30.
Varley, G. C. & G. R. Gradwell. 1960. Key factors in population studies. J. Anim. Ecol. 29: 399-401.
Whitcomb, W. H. 1967. Field studies on predators of the second-instar bollworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie). J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 2: 113-18.
Whitcomb, W. H. & K. Bell. 1964. Predaceous insects, spiders and mites of Arkansas cotton fields. Univ. Ark. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 690. 84 p.