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NATURALLY OCCURRING BIOLOGICAL

PEST CONTROL IN CANADA

(Contacts)

 

 

          Canada has traditionally been involved in classical biological control almost from the time emphasis was being given to this approach to pest control in California. The advent of pesticide resistance in pests of orchard crops especially, caused researcher to focus attention on naturally occurring controls. The value of natural predators in the forest biome was also quickly appreciated following intense studies on the population dynamics of a number of invaded and native insect pests. Research by the government laboratory in Bellville focused attention a wide array of studies designed for a better understanding of parasitoids and predators in general as well as classical biological control. Unfortunately, this laboratory was later abandoned and the researchers scattered to all parts of Canada. Listed in the references are some of the more prominent references referring to naturally occurring biological control.

 

REFERENCES: & <POOLED.REF>  [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library ]

Andrés, L. A., C. J. Davis, P. Harris & A. J. Wapshere. 1976. Biological control of weeds, p. 481-99. In: C. B. Huffaker & P. S. Messenger (eds.), Theory and Practice of Biological Control. Academic Press, New York. 788 p.

Bay, E. C., C. O. Berg, H. C. Chapman & E. F. Legner. 1976. Biological control of medical and veterinary pests, pp. 457-79. In: Theory and Practice of Biological Control, C. B. Huffaker & P. S. Messenger (eds.). Academic Press, New York, N.Y. 788 p.

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds) 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

LeRoux, E. J. 1960. Effects of 'modified' and 'commercial' spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Quebec. Ann. Soc. Ent. Quebec 76: 87-119.

LeRoux, E. J. 1971. Biological control attempts on pome fruits (apple and pear) in North America. 1860-1970. Canad. Ent. 103: 963-74.

LeRoux, E. J., R. O. Paradis & M. Hudon. 1963. Major mortality factors in the population dynamics of the eye-spotted bud moth, the pistol casebearer, the fruit-tree leaf roller and the European corn borer in Quebec. Mem. Ent. Soc. Canad. 32: 67-82.

Lord, F. T. 1947. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia: II. Oystershell scale, Lepidosaphes ulmi (L.). Canad. Ent. 81: 202-30.

Lord, F. T., H. J. Herbert & A. W. MacPhee. 1958. The natural control of phytophagous mites on apple trees in Nova Scotia. Proc 10th Intern. Congr. Ent. Montreal (1956) 4: 617-22.

Lord, F. T. & D. K. R. Stewart. 1961. Effects of increasing the nitrogen level of apple leaves on mite and predator populations. Canad. Ent. 93: 924-27.

MacLellan, C. R. 1958. Role of woodpeckers in control of the codling moth in Nova Scotia. Canad. Ent. 90: 18-22.

MacLellan, C. R. 1963. Predator populations and predation on the codling moth in an integrated control orchard-- 1961. Mem. Ent. Soc. Canad. 32: 41-54.

MacLellan, C. R. 1966. Present status of codling moth populations. 103rd Rep. Nova Scotia Fruit Growers' Assoc. p. 77-83.

MacPhee, A. W. & K. H. Sanford. 1956. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia. X. Supplement to VII. Effects on some beneficial arthropods. Canad. Ent. 88: 631-34.

MacPhee, A. W. & C. R. MacLellan. 1971a. Cases of naturally occurring biological control in Canada. In: C. B. Huffaker (ed.), "Biological Control." Plenum Press, N.Y. p. 312-28.

MacPhee, A. W. & C. R. MacLellan. 1971b (1972?). Ecology of apple orchard fauna and development of integrated pest control in Nova Scotia. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. on Ecol. Animal Control Habitat Management 3: 197-208. Tallahassee, Florida, Tall Timbers Res. Station.

MacPhee, A. W., L. E. Caltagirone, M. van de Vrie & E. Collyer. 1976. Biological control of pests of temperate fruits and nuts, p. 337-58. In: C. B. Huffaker & P. S. Messenger (eds.), Theory and Practice of Biological Control. Academic Press, New York.

Miller, C. A. 1966.. The black-headed budworm in Eastern Canada. Canad. Ent. 98: 592-613.

Morris, R. F. 1959. Single-factor analysis in population dynamics. Ecology 40: 580-88.

Patterson, N. A. 1966. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia. XVI. The long-term effect of mild pesticides on pests and their predators. J. Econ. Ent. 59: 1430-35.

Patterson, N. A. & C. R. MacLellan. 1954. Control of the codling moth and other orchard pests with ryania. 85th Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont. p. 25-32.

Pickett, A. D. 1959. Utilization of native parasites and predators. J. Econ. Ent. 52: 1103-05.

Pickett, A. D. & A. W. MacPhee. 1965. Twenty years' experience with integrated control programmes in Nova Scotia apple and pear orchards. Proc. 12th Intern. Cong. Ent. (London, 1964): 597.

Pickett, A. D. & N. A. Patterson. 1953. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia. IV. A review. Canad. Ent. 85: 472-78.

Pickett, A. D., N. A. Patterson, H. T. Stultz & F. T. Lord. 1946. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia: I. An appraisal of the problem and a method of approach. Sci. Agr. 26: 590-600.

Pickett, A. D., W. L. Putman & E. J. LeRoux. 1958. Progress in harmonizing biological and chemical control of orchard pests in eastern Canada. Proc. 10th Internatl. Congr. Ent. 3: 169-74.

Putman, W. L. & D. H. C. Herne. 1966. The role of predators and other biotic agents in regulating the population density of phytophagous mites in Ontario peach orchards. Canad. Ent. 98: 808-20.

Sanford, K. H. & F. T. Lord. 1962. The influence of spray programs on the fauna of apple orchards in Nova Scotia. XIII. Effects of perthane on predators. Canad. Ent. 84: 928-34.