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          With the exception of the coccinellid beetle, Rodolia cardinalis, for cottony-cushion scale Hister chinensis for houseflies, and perhaps predatory mites, insect predators have not been successfully deployed in classical biological control. Predators usually require more than one host individual to complete their development, which distinguishes them from parasitoids, with which most classical cases of biological control have been accomplished. Native predators, nevertheless, are generally regarded with great importance for maintaining host abundance at lower levels than would be the case without their presence. Research has, therefore, frequently focused attention on predator biology and ecology for a number of agroecosystems, especially orchards, field crops and medical/veterinary entomology. Some of the more significant work setting the pattern for contemporary studies on predation is found in the accompanying references. However, an expanded treatment of predation in aquatic ecosystems may be found in the section on Medical/Veterinary Entomology, <bc-37.htm>, and of predatory mites in the sections on Biological Control by Acarina, <bc-40.htm>, and in Glasshouses , <bc-35.htm>. [Please also see <bc-71.htm> ]



[Please refer also to Selected Reviews , Staphylinidae &  Detailed Research #1, #2, #3, #4 ] ]


REFERENCES: (CLICK on highlighted references for details) [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library ]

Anonymous. 1981. Data sheet on Nothobranchius spp., N. guentheri and N. rachovi [as a predator of mosquito larvae] distribution, life cycle, biology, growth, reproduction, aging and behaviour. World Health Organization, WHO/VBC/81.829; VBC/BCDS/81.16, Geneva.

Abbott, C. E. 1937. The necrophilous habit in Coleoptera. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 32: 202-04.

Abbott, C. E. 1938. The development and general biology of Creophilus villosus Grav. J. New York Ent. Soc. 46: 49-52.

Adashkevitch, B. P. & N. A. Popov. 1972. The predators of the luguminous aphis (Acyrtosiphon posum Harr.) in Moldavia. Defense Veg. Plants. Kishinev 12: 36-46.

Aldrich, J. M. 1922. A new genus of two-winged flies with mandible-like labella. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 24: 145-50.

Ali, A. & M. S. Mulla. 1983. Evaluation of the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala, as a predator of chironomid midges and mosquitoes in experimental ponds. Mosquito News 43: 46-49.

Alio, A. Y., A. Isaq & L. F. Delfini. 1985. Field trial on the impact of Oreochromis spilurus spilurus on malaria transmission in northern Somalia. WHO/VBC/85.910. 18 p.

Anderson, J. F. 1974. Responses to starvation in the spiders Lycosa lenta Hentz and Filistata hibernalis (Hentz). Ecology 55: 576-85.

Anderson, N. H. 1962a. Bionomics of six species of Anthocoris (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in England. Trans. Ent. Soc. London 114: 67-95.

Anderson, N. H. 1962b. Anthocoridae of the Pacific Northwest with notes on distributions, life histories and habits (Heteroptera). Canad. Ent. 94: 1325-34.

Arzet, R. H. 1973. Suchverhalten der Larven von Chrysopa carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Z. angew. Ent. 74: 64-79.

Asquith, D. & R. Colburn. 1971. Integrated pest management in Pennsylvania apple orchards. Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 17: 89-91.

Axtell, R. C. 1969. Macrochelidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) as biological control agents for synanthropic flies. Proc. 2nd Internat. Cong. Acarol. 1967: 401-16.

Azam, K. M. & N. H. Anderson. 1969. Life history and habits of Sialis rotunda and S. californica in western Oregon. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62: 549-58.

Badgley, M. E. & C. A. Fleschner. 1956. Biology of Oligota oviformis Casey (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 49: 501-02.

Badgley, M. E., C. A. Fleschner & J. C. Hall. 1955. The biology of Spiloconis picticornis Banks (Neuroptera: Coniopterygidae) introduced into California from Hong Kong. Psyche 62: 75-81.

Balduf, W. V. 1935. The Bionomics of Entomophagous Coleoptera. John S. Swift, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri. 220 p.

Balduf, W. V. 1939. The Bionomics of Entomophagous Insects, Part II. John S. Swift, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri. 384 p.

Baldwin, W. F., H. G. James & H. E. Welch. 1955. A study of predators of mosquito larvae and pupae with a radio-active tracer. Canad. Ent. 87: 350.

Banks, C. J. 1955. An ecological study of Coccinellidae associated with Aphis fabae Scop. on Vicia faba. Bull. Ent. Res. 45: 561-87.

Banks, C. J. 1957. The behaviour of individual coccinellid larvae on plants. Brit. J. Anim. Behav. 5: 12-24.

Bänsch, R. 1964. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Biologie und zum Beutefangverhalten aphidivorer Coccinelliden, Chrysopiden und Syrphiden. Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 91: 271-340.

Bänsch, R. 1966. On prey-seeking behaviour of aphidophagous insects, p. 123-28. In: I. Hodek (ed.), Ecology of Aphidophagous Insects. W. Junk, The Hague. 227 p.

Bartlett, B. R. & D. C. Lloyd. 1958. Mealybugs attacking citrus in California-- a survey of their natural enemies and the release of new parasites and predators. J. Econ. Ent. 51: 90-3.

Bay, E. C. 1966. Adaptation studies with the Argentine pearl fish, Cynolebias bellottii, for its introduction into California. Amer. Soc. Ichthy. & Herp. 4: 839-46.

Bay, E. C. 1967a. Mosquito control by fish: a present day appraisal. WHO Chronicle 21(10): 415-23.

Bay, E. C. 1969. Fish predators. Proc. Calif. Mosq. Control Assoc. 37: 15-16.

Bay, E. C. 1972. Mosquito fish a controversial friend to mosquito control. Pest Control 40: 32-33.

Bay, E. C. 1974. Predator-prey relationships among aquatic insects. Ann. Rev. Ent. 19: 441-53.

Bay, E. C. 1976. Part I: Parasites and predators introduced against arthropod pests. Diptera, p. 339-46. In: C. P. Clausen (ed.), Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: a world review. U. S. Dept. Agric. Handb. 480.

Bay, E. C. & L. D. Anderson. 1965. Studies with the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis as a chironomid control. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 59: 150-53.

1963a   Bay, E. C. & E. F. Legner.  1963.  Quality control in the production of Hippelates collusor (Tsnd.) for use in the search and rearing of   

           their natural enemies.  Proc. New Jersey Mosquito Exterm. Comm. 1963.  403-410.


1963b   Bay, E. C. & E. F. Legner.  1963.  The prospect for the biological control of Hippelates collusor (Townsend) in southern California.  

             Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 31:  76-79.

Bay, E. C. & L. S. Self. 1972. Observations of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, in Culex pipiens fatigans breeding sites in Bangkok, Rangoon and Taipei. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 46: 407-16.

1964   Bay, E. C., E. F. Legner & R. Medved.  1964.  Hippelates collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae) as a host for four species of parasitic Hymenoptera in southern California.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 57(5):  582-584.


1976  Bay, E. C., C. O. Berg, H. C. Chapman & E. F. Legner.  1976.   Biological control of medical and veterinary pests.  In: "Theory and

            Practice of Biological Control," p. 457-79.  C. B. Huffaker (ed.). Academic Press, Inc., New York, London.  788 pp.         

Beard, R. L. 1964. Parasites of muscoid flies. Bull. World Health Org. 31: 491-93.

Beard, R. L. & G. S. Walton. 1965. An Aspergillus toxin lethal to the larvae of the house fly. J. Invert. Pathol. 7: 522-23.

Beck, A. F. & E. C. Turner, Jr. 1985. A comparison of five house-fly (Diptera: Muscidae) population monitoring techniques. J. Med. Ent. 22: 346-48.

Beesley, C. 1974. Simulated predation of single-prey (Culex peus) and alternative prey (Culex peus; Chironomus sp. 51) by Anax junius Drury (Odonata: Aeschnidae). Proc. Calif. Mosq. Control Assoc. 42: 73-76.

Bell, W. J. 1990. Searching behavior patterns in insects. Ann. Rev. Ent. 35: 447-67.

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds) 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Bence, J. R. 1982. Some interactions of predacious insects and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis): a review of some recent results. Bull. Soc. Vect. Ecol. 7: 41-4.

Bennett, F. D. & I. W. Hughes. 1959. Biological control of insect pests in Bermuda. Bull. Ent. Res. 50: 423-36.

1967   Bennett, F. D. & E. F. Legner.  1967.  Memorandum on the possibilities of biological control of the muscid flies by hymenopterous 

            parasites.  Wld. Hlth. Org. VBC/67.22.  12 pp.        

Bequaert, J. 1922. The predaceous enemies of ants. Bull. Amer. Mus. Natur. Hist 45: 27-31.

Berg, C. O. 1961. Biology of snail-killing Sciomyzidae (Diptera) of North America and Europe. Verh. XI Int. Kongr. Ent, Wien, 1960 1: 197-202.

Blackman, R. L. 1965. Studies on specificity in Coccinellidae. Ann. Appl. Biol. 56: 336-38.

Blumberg, D. & E. Swirski. 1974. The development and reproduction of Cybocephalid beetles on various foods. Entomophaga 19: 437-43.

Blaustein, L. 1986. Green sunfish: friend or foe of rice field mosquitoes? Proc. Calif. Mosq. Vect. Contr. Assoc. 54: 90.

Blume, R. R., S. E. Kunz, B. F. Hogan & J. J. Matter. 1970. Biological and ecological investigations of horn flies in central Texas: influence of other insects in cattle manure. J. Econ. Ent. 63: 1121-23.

Bombosch, S. 1962. Untersuchungen über die Auslösung der Eiablage bei Syrphus corollae Fabr. (Diptera: Syrphidae). Z. angew. Ent. 50: 81-8.

Bombosch, S. 1963. Untersuchungen zur Vermehrung von Aphis fabae Scop. in Samenrübenbestanden unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Schwebfliegen (Diptera: Syrphidae). Z. angew. Ent. 52: 105-41.

Bombosch, S. 1965. Untersuchungen on Aphis fabae Scop. und ihren natürlichen Feinden als Grundlage für ein integriertes Bekämpfungsprogramm. Mitt. Biol. Bundesanst. Land. Forstwirt. Berlin Dahlem 115: 13-21.

Bombosch, S. & S. Volk. 1966. Selection of oviposition site by Syrphus corollae F., p. 117-19. In: I. Hodek (ed.), Ecology of Aphidophagous Insects. W. Junk, The Hague. 227 p.

Bonnet, D. D. & A. M. K. Hu. 1951. The introduction of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis (Theobald) into the Territory of Hawaii. Proc. Hawaii Ent. Soc. 14: 237-42.

Borden, J. H. 1974. Aggregation pheromones in the Scolytidae, p. 133-60. In: M. C. Birch (ed.), Pheromones. North-Holland Co., Amsterdam; Amer. Elsevier, New York.

Borland, S. M. 1971. Biology and life history of Laccophilus terminalis Sharp (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), an aquatic predator of mosquito larvae. M. S. Thesis, Univ. of Calif., Riverside. 24 p.

Bornemissza, G. F. 1957a. An analysis of arthropod succession in carrion and the effect of its decomposition on the soil fauna. Austral. Zool. 5: 1-12.

Bornemissza, G. F. 1957b. Observations on the hunting and mating behavior of two species of scorpion flies (Bittacidae: Mecoptera). Aust. J. Zool. 14: 371-82.

Bornemissza, G. F. 1968. Studies on the histerid beetle Pachylister chinensis in Fiji, and its possible value in the control of buffalo-fly in Australia. Austral. J. Zool. 16: 673-88.

Bourne, J. R. & R. J. Nielsson. 1967. Nemobius fasciatus-- a predator on horn fly pupae. J. Econ. Ent. 60: 272-74.

Boving, A. 1917. A generic synopsis of coccinellid larvae in the United States National Museum, with a description of the larva of Hyperaspis binotata Say. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 51: 621-50.

Bradley, G. A. 1973. Effect of Formica obscuripes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on the predator-prey relationship between Hyperaspis congressis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Toumeyella numismaticum (Homoptera: Coccidae). Canad. Ent. 105: 1113-18.

Bromley, S. W. 1945. Insect enemies of the house fly, Musca domestica L. J. New York. Ent. Soc. 53: 145-52.

Brooke, M. M. & H. O. Proske. 1946. Precipitin test for determining natural insect predators of immature mosquitoes. J. Nat. Malariol. Soc. 5: 45-56.

Brown, H. D. 1972. Predaceous behaviour of four species of coccinellidae (Coleoptera) associated with the wheat aphid, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), in South Africa. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 124: 21-36.

Brues, C. T. 1946. Dragonflies as predatory enemies of the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans). Psyche 53: 50-1.

Brues, C. T. 1946. Insect Dietary. Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge, Mass. 466 p.

Camors, F. B., Jr. & T. L. Payne. 1973. Sequence of arrival of entomophagous insects to trees infested with the southern pine beetle. Environ. Ent. 2: 267-70.

Canard, M. 1970. Incidence de la valeur alimentaire de divers pucerons (Homoptera: Aphididae) sur le potential de multiplication de Chrysopa perla (L.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim. 2: 345-55.

Carayon, J. 1961. Quelques remarques sur les Hemipteres-Heteropteres: Leur importance comme insectes auxiliaires et les possibilites de leur utilisation dans la lutte Biologique. Entomophaga 6: 133-41.

Case, T. J. & R. K. Washino. 1979. Flatworm control of mosquito larvae in rice fields. Science 206: 1412-14.

Cech, J. J., Jr. & A. L. Linden. 1987. Comparative larvivorous performances of mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, and juvenile Sacramento blackfish, Orthodon microlepidotus, in experimental paddies. J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 3: 35-41.

Ceianu, I., G. H. Mihalache & I. Balinschi. 1965. Combatera biologica a daunatorilor Forestieri. Editura Agro-Silvica, Bucuresti. 255 p.

Chandler, A. E. F. 1968. Some factors influencing the occurrence and site of oviposition by aphidophagous Syrphydae (Diptera). Ann. Appl. Biol. 61: 435-46.

Chant, D. A. 1959. Phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Part I. Bionomics of seven species in southwestern England. Part II. A taxonomic review of the family Phytoseiidae, with descriptions of thirty-eight new species. Canad. Ent. 91 (Suppl. 12): 166 p.

Chapman, H. C., J. J. Peterson & T. Fukuda. 1972. Predators and pathogens for mosquito control. Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 21(5): 777-81.

Chiang, H. C. 1974. Predation in retrospect and in prospect. Entomophaga 7: 83-8.

Chidester, F. E. 1917. Dytiscus as a destroyer of mosquito larvae. Ent. News 28: 454.

Chodorowski, A. 1968. Predator-prey relation between Mochlonyx culiformis and Aedes communis. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 15: 279-88.

Chu, Y-I. 1969. On the bionomics of Lyctocoris beneficus (Hiura) and Xylocoris galactinus (Fieber) (Anthocoridae, Heteroptera). J. Fac. Agr. Kyushu Univ. 15: 1-136.

Clark, C. U. 1895. On the food habits of certain dung and carrion beetles. J. New York Ent. Soc. 3: 61.

Clausen, C. P. 1940. Entomophagous Insects. McGraw-Hill, New York. 638 p.

Cochereau, P. 1969. Controle biologique d'Aspidiotus destructor Signoret (Homoptera: Diaspinae) dans l'ite Vaté (Nouvelles Hébrides) au moyen de Rhizobus pulchellus Montrouzier (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Biol. Cah. ORSTOM 8: 57-100.

Cole, F. R. & E. I. Schlinger. 1969. The Flies of Western North America. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley. 693 p.

Collins, F. H. & R. K. Washino. 1978. Microturbellarians as natural predators of mosquito larvae in northern California rice fields. Proc. Calif. Mosq. Vect. Contr. Assoc. 46: 91.

Collins, F. H. & R. K. Washino. 1979. Factors affecting the density of Culex tarsalis and Anopheles freeborni in northern California rice fields. Proc. Calif. Mosq. Control Assoc. 47: 97-98.

Collins, I. P. 1965. Predation by a mite, Macrocheles muscaedomesticae on a fly Aldrichina grahami, as related to the fly problem in poultry houses. M. S. Thesis, Univ. of California, Davis.

Collyer, E. 1953. Biology of some predatory insects and mites associated with the fruit tree red spider mite [Metatetranychus ulmi (Koch)] in south-eastern England. III. Further predators of the mite. J. Hort. Sci. 35: 98-113.

Collyer, E. & A. M. Massee. 1958. Some predators of phytophagous mites, and their occurrence, in southeastern England. Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Ent. 4: 623-31.

Cook, W. L. & F. A. Streams. 1984. Fish predation on Notonecta (Hemiptera): relationship between prey risk and habitat utilization. Oecologia 64: 177-83.

Coppel, H. C. & P. A. Jones. 1962. Bionomics of Podisus spp. associated with the introduced pine sawfly, Diprion similis (Htg.), in Wisconsin. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 51: 31-56.

Corbet, P. S. 1962. A Biology of Dragonflies. Quadrangle Books, Chicago, Illinois. 247 p.

Corbet, P. S. 1963. Observations on Toxorhychites brevipalpis Conradti Grunb. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Uganda. Bull. Ent. Res. 54: 9-17.

Corbet, P. S. & A. Griffiths. 1963. Observations on the aquatic stages of two species of Toxorhynchites (Diptera: Culicidae) in Uganda. Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, Ser. a-38: 125-35.

Coykendall, R. L. (ed.) 1980. Fishes in California mosquito control, Sacramento, United States of America. Calif. Mosq. Control Assoc. Press. 90 pp.

Cullen, M. J. 1969. The biology of giant water bugs (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) in Trinidad. Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 44: 123-36.

Dahlsten, D. L., R. Garcia, J. E. Prine & R. Hunt. 1969. Insect problems in forest recreation areas. Calif. Agr. 23: 4-6.

Danielson, T. L. 1968. Differential predation on Culex pipiens and Anopheles albimanus mosquito larvae by two species of fish (Gambusia affinis and Cyprinodon nevadensis) and the effects of simulated reeds on predation. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of California, Riverside. 115 p.

Davey, R. B. & M. V. Meisch. 1977a. Dispersal of mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, in Arkansas rice fields. Mosq. News 37: 777-78.

Davey, R. B. & M. V. Meisch. 1977b. Control of dark rice-field mosquito larvae, Psorophora columbiae by mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis and green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus, in Arkansas rice fields. Mosq. News. 37: 258-62.

Davidson, W. M. 1924. Observations and experiments on the dispersion of the convergent lady beetle [Hippodamia convergens (Guerin)] in California. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 50: 163-75.

Davis, C. J. & M. Chong. 1968. Recent introductions for biological control in Hawaii-- XIII. Proc. Hawaii. Ent. Soc. 20: 25-34.

Davis, J. J. 1919. Contributions to a knowledge of the natural enemies of Phyllophaga. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 13: 53-138.

DeBach, P. 1951. The necessity for an ecological approach to pest control on citrus in California. J. Econ. Ent. 44: 443-47.

DeLoach, C. J. 1971. The effect of habitat diversity on predation. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Managem. 2: 223-41.

Demian, E. S. & E. G. Kamel. 1973. Biological control of Bulinus truncatus under semifield conditions using the snail Marisa cornuarietis. 9th Intern. Congr. on Trop. Med. & Malaria, Athens, Vol. 2: 77-8.

Demian, E. S. & R. G. Lufty. 1966. Factors affecting the predation of Marisa cornuarietis on Bulinus (B.) truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Lymnaea caillaudi. Oikos 17: 212-30.

Dempster, J. P. 1968. Intra-specific competition and dispersal: as exemplified by a psyllid and its anthocorid predator, p. 8-17. In: T. R. E. Southwood (ed.), Insect Abundance. Blackwell, Oxford.

Dickson, R. C. & E. F. Laird, Jr. 1962. Green peach aphid populations in desert sugar beets. J. Econ. Ent. 55: 501-04.

Dixon, A. F. G. 1958. The escape responses shown by certain aphids to the presence of the coccinellid Adalia decempunctata (L.). Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 110: 319-34.

Dixon, A. F. G. 1959. An experimental study of searching behaviour of the predatory coccinellid beetle Adalia decempunctata (L.). J. Anim. Ecol. 28: 259-81.

Dixon, A. F. G. 1970. Factors limiting the effectiveness of the coccinellid beetle, Adalia bipunctata (L.) as a predator of the sycamore aphid, Drepanosiphum platanoides (Schr.). J. Anim. Ecol. 39: 739-51.

Dixon, A. F. G. & R. J. Russel. 1972. The effectiveness of Anthocoris nemorum and A. confusus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) as predators of sycamore aphid, Drepanosiphum platanoides. II. Searching behaviour and the incidence of predation in the field. Ent. Exp. Appl. 15: 35-50.

Dondale, C. D. 1958. Note on population densities of spiders (Aranae) in Nova Scotia apple orchards. Canad. Ent. 90: 111-13.

Doutt, R. L. 1951. Biological control of mealybugs infesting commercial greenhouse gardenias. J. Econ. Ent. 44: 37-40.

Doutt, R. L. & K. S. Hagen. 1950. Biological control measures applied against Pseudococcus maritimus on pears. J. Econ. Ent. 43: 94-96.

Drea, J. J., Jr. 1956. A biological analysis of the California Chilocorinif (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Calif., Berkeley.

East, R. 1974. Predation of the soil-dwelling stages of the winter moth at Wytham Woods, Berkshire. J. Anim. Ecol. 43: 611-26.

Edwards, J. S. 1966. Observations on the life history and predatory behavior of Zelus exsanguis (Stal) (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 41: 21-4.

Ehler, L. E. & R. van den Bosch. 1974. An analysis of the natural biological control of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton in California. Canad. Ent. 106: 1067-73.

Ellis, R. A. & J. H. Borden. 1969. Laboratory rearing of Notonecta undulata Say (Hemiptera: Notonectidae). J. Ent. Soc. Brit. Columbia 66: 51-53.

Ellis, R. A. & J. H. Borden. 1970. Predation by Notonecta undulata (Heteroptera: Notonectidae) on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 63: 963-73.

El Rayah, El Amin. 1975. Dragonfly nymphs as active predators of mosquito larvae. Mosq. News 35: 229-30.

Elson, J. A. 1937. A comparative study of Hemiptera. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 30: 579-97.

Escherich, K. 1942. Diptera. In: Die Forstinsekten Mitteleuropas, Vol. 5, p. 505-705. Paul Parey, Berlin.

Evans, H. E. & M. J. W. Eberhard. 1970. The Wasps. Univ. Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 265 p.

Evans, M. E. G. 1964. A comparative account of feeding methods of the beetles Nebria brevicollis (F.) (Carabidae) and Philonthus decorus (Grav.) (Staphylinidae). Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. 66: 9-109.

Eveleens, K. G., R. van den Bosch & L. E. Ehler. 1973. Secondary outbreak induction of beet armyworm by experimental insecticide applications in cotton in California. Environ. Ent. 2: 497-503.

Ewert, M. A. & H. C. Chiang. 1966. Dispersal of three species of coccinellids in corn fields. Canad. Ent. 98: 999-1003.

Farley, D. G. & J. R. Caton. 1982. A preliminary report on the use of mosquito fish to control mosquitoes in an urban storm drain system. Proc. Calif. Mosq. Control Assoc. 50: 57-81.

Farley, D. G. & L. C. Younce. 1977. Effects of Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard) on selected non-target organisms in Fresno county rice fields. Proc. Calif. Mosq. Control Assoc. 45: 87-94.

Ferenz, H. J. & W. Holters. 1975. Corpus allatum hormone induced maturation in males of three carabid species of the genus Pterostichus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Ent. Exp. Appl. 18: 238-43.

Fields, G. J. & B. P. Beirne. 1973. Ecology of anthocorid (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) predators of the pear psylla (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. J. Ent. Soc. Brit. Columbia 70: 18-19.

Filipponi, A. 1964. The feasibility of mass producing macrochelid mites for field trials against houseflies. Bull. World Health Org. 3: 499-501.

Finnegan, R. J. 1974. Ants as predators of forest pests. Entomophaga Mem. H. S. 7: 53-9.

Fisher, T. W. 1963. Mass culture of Cryptolaemus and Leptomastix natural enemies of citrus mealybug. Univ. Calif. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 797. 38 p.

Flaherty, D. L. & M. A. Hoy. 1971. Biological control of pacific mites in San Joaquin Valley vineyards. III. Role of tydeid mites. Res. Population Ecol. 13: 80-96.

Fleschner, C. A. 1950. Studies on searching capacity of the larvae of three predators of the citrus red mite. Hilgardia 20: 233-65.

Fleschner, C. A., J. C. Hall & D. W. Ricker. 1955. Natural balance of mite pests in an avocado grove. Calif. Avocado Soc. Yearb. 39: 155-62.

Forbes, S. A. 1880. Notes on insectivorous Coleoptera. Ill. State Lab. Nat. Hist. Bull. 1: 167-76.

Forbes, S. A. 1883. The food relations of the Carabidae and Coccinellidae. Ill. State Lab. Nat. Hist. Bull. 6: 33-64.

Franz, J. 1958. Studies on Larricobius erichsonii Rosench (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) a predator of chermesids. Entomophaga 3: 109-96.

Fuller, M. E. 1934. The insect inhabitants of carrion: a study in animal ecology. Council Sci. Ind. Res. 82: 1-62.

Gagne, W. C. & J. L. Martin. 1968. The insect ecology of red pine plantations in central Ontario. Canad. Ent. 100: 835-46.

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1965   Legner, E. F.  1965.  Un complejo de los artrópodos que influyen los estadios juveniles de Musca domestica L. en Puerto Rico.  Carib. J. Sci. 5(3-4):  109-115.


1971  Legner, E. F.  1971.  Some effects of the ambient arthropod complex on the density and potential parasitization of muscoid Diptera in poultry wastes.  J. Econ. Entomol. 64(1):  111-115.


1977  Legner, E. F.  1977.  Response of Culex spp. larvae and their natural insect predators to two inoculation rates with Dugesia dorotocephala (Woodworth) in shallow ponds.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 37(3):  435-440.


1978a  Legner, E. F.  1978a.  Natural enemies imported in California for the biological control of face fly, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, and horn fly,   Haematobia irritans (L.).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 46:  77-79.


1978b  Legner, E. F.  1978b.  Mass culture of Tilapia zillii [Cichlidae] in pond ecosystems.  Entomophaga 23(1):  51-56.


1978c  Legner, E. F.  1978c.  Part I:  Parasites and predators introduced against arthropod pests.  Diptera.  In:  Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds:  a World Review (C. P. Clausen, ed.), pp. 335-39;  346-55.  Agric. Handbk. No. 480, ARS, USDA, U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Wash., D. C.  545 pp


1979a  Legner, E. F.  1979a.  Advancements in the use of flatworms for biological mosquito control.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 47:  42-43.


1979b  Legner, E. F.  1979b.  Considerations in the management of Tilapia for biological aquatic weed control.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc.  47:  44-45.


1983   Legner, E. F.  1983.  Imported cichlid behaviour in California.  Proc. Intern. Symp. on Tilapia in aquaculture, Nazareth, Israel, 8-13 May, 1983.  Tel Aviv Univ. Publ. 59-63.


1985  Legner, E. F.  1985.  Invertebrate predators other than insects.  In:  Biological Control of Mosquitoes, pp. 46-50 (Chapter 6), H.C. Chapman (ed.).  Bull. No. 6, Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc.  218 pp.


1986a  Legner, E. F.  1986a.  Importation of exotic natural enemies.  In:  pp. 19-30, "Biological Control of Plant Pests and of Vectors of Human and Animal  Diseases."  Fortschritte der Zool. Bd. 32:  341 pp.


1986b  Legner, E. F.  1986b.  The requirement for reassessment of interactions among dung beetles, symbovine flies and natural enemies.  Entomol. Soc. Amer. Misc. Publ. 61:  120-131.


1964   Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1964.  La primera exploración para buscar enemigos naturales de Hippelates en Puerto Rico (Insecta: Chloropidae).  Carib. J. Sci. 4(4):  467-471.


1965  Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1965.  Predatory and parasitic agents attacking the Hippelates pusio complex in Puerto Rico.  J. Agric. Univ.Puerto Rico 49(3):  377-385.


1973  Legner, E. F. & W. R. Bowen.  1973.  Influence of available poultry manure breeding habitat on emergence density of synanthropic flies (Diptera).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 66(3):  533-538.


1989  Legner, E. F. & E. J. Dietrick.  1989.  Coexistence of predatory Muscina stabulans and Ophyra aenescens [Dipt.: Muscidae] with dipterous prey in poultry manure.  Entomophaga 34(4):  453-461.  


1980  Legner, E. F. & T. W. Fisher.  1980.  Impact of Tilapia zillii (Gervais) on Potamogeton pectinatus L., Myriophyllum spicatum var. exalbescens Jepson, and mosquito reproduction in lower Colorado Desert irrigation canals.  Acta Oecologica, Oecol. Applic. 1(1):  3-14.


1972  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1972.  Predators investigated for the biological control of mosquitoes and midges at the University of California, Riverside.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 40:  109-111.


1973a  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1973a.  Influence of Tilapia mossambica (Peters), T. zillii (Gervais) (Cichlidae) and Mollienesia latipinna LeSueur (Poeciliidae) on pond populations of Culex mosquitoes and chironomid midges.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 33(3):  354-364.


1973b  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1973b.  Predation of mosquitoes and chironomid midges in ponds by Tilapia zillii (Gervais) and T.  mossambica (Peters) (Teleosteii: Cichlidae).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 41:  119-121.


1974a  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1974a.  The native desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius Baird and Girard, a substitute for Gambusia in  mosquito control?  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 42:  58-59.


1974b  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1974b.  Laboratory and small-scale field experiments with planaria (Tricladida, Turbellaria) as biological mosquito control agents.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 42:  79-80.


1977   Legner, E. F. & I. Moore.  1977.  The larva of Platystethus spiculus Erichson (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and its occurrence in bovine feces in irrigated pastures.  Psyche 84(2):  158-164.


1964    Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman.  1964.  Spiders on apple in Wisconsin and their abundance in a natural and two artificial environments.   Canad. Entomol. 96(9):  1202-1207.


1970  Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1970.  Worldwide survey and comparison of adult predator and scavenger insect populations associated  with domestic animal manure where livestock is artificially congregated.  Hilgardia 40(9):  225-266.


1977   Legner, E. F. & F. W. Pelsue.  1977.  Adaptations of Tilapia to Culex and chironomid midge ecosystems in south California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 45:  95-97.


1980  Legner, E. F. & F. W. Pelsue, Jr.  1980.  Bioconversion:  Tilapia fish turn insects and weeds into edible protein.  Calif. Agric. 34(11-12):13-14.


1983   Legner, E. F. & F. W. Pelsue, Jr.  1983.  Contemporary appraisal of the population dynamics of introduced cichlid fish in south California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  38-39.


1978  Legner, E. F. & S.-C. Tsai.  1978.  Increasing fission rate of the planarian mosquito predator, Dugesia dorotocephala, through biological filtration.  Entomophaga 23(3):  293-298.


1990  Legner, E. F. & R. W. Warkentin.  1990.  Rationale for the desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, as a complement to Gambusia in mosquito control.  Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 57:  142-145.


1975  Legner, E. F. & H.-S. Yu.  1975.  Larvicidal effects on mosquitoes of substances secreted by the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala

           (Woodworth).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 43:  128-131.


1965   Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & C. W. McCoy.  1965.  Parasitic natural regulatory agents attacking Musca domestica L. in Puerto Rico.  J. Agric.  Univ. Puerto Rico 49(3):  368-376.


1969  Legner, E. F. & D. J. Greathead.  1969.  Parasitism of pupae in East African populations of Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 62(1):  128-133.


1966  Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & T. H. Farr.  1966.  Parasitic and predacious agents affecting the Hippelates pusio complex in Jamaica and Trinidad.   Canad. Entomol. 98(1):  28-33.


1971  Legner, E. F., L. Moore & R. A. Medved.  1971.  Observations on predation of Hippelates collusor and distribution in southern California of associated fauna.  J. Econ. Entomol. 64(2):  461-468.


1973   Legner, E. F., W. R. Bowen, W. D. McKeen, W. F. Rooney & R. F. Hobza.  1973.  Inverse relationships between mass of breeding habitatand synanthropic fly emergence and the measurement of population densities with sticky tapes in California inland valleys.  Environ. Entomol. 2(2):  199-205.               


1974   Legner, E. F., B. B. Sugerman, H.-S. Yu and H. Lum.  1974.  Biological and integrated control of the bush fly, Musca sorbens Wiedemann  and other filth breeding Diptera in Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands.  Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 1:  1-14.


1975a  Legner, E. F., R. A. Medved & W. J. Hauser.  1975.  Predation by the desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius on Culex mosquitoes and benthic chironomid midges.  Entomophaga 20(1):  23-30.


1975b  Legner, E. F., H.-S. Yu, R. A. Medved & M. E. Badgley.  1975b.  Mosquito and chironomid midge control by planaria.  Calif. Agric. 29(11):  3-6.


1975c  Legner, E. F., G. S. Olton, R. E. Eastwood & E. J. Dietrick.  1975c.  Seasonal density, distribution and interactions of predatory and  scavenger arthropods in accumulating poultry wastes in coastal and interior southern California.  Entomophaga 20(3):  269-283.


1980a   Legner, E. F., R. A. Medved & F. Pelsue.  1980a.  Changes in chironomid breeding patterns in a paved river channel following adaptation of cichlids of the Tilapia mossambica-hornorum complex.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 73(1):  293-299.


1980b  Legner, E. F., D. J. Greathead & I. Moore.  1980b.  Population density fluctuations of predatory and scavenger arthropods in accumulating bovine excrement of three age classes in equatorial East Africa. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 5:  23-44.


1980c  Legner, E. F., R. D. Sjogren & L. L. Luna.  1980c.  Arthropod fauna cohabiting larval breeding sites of Leptoconops foulki Clastrier & Wirth in the Santa Ana River, California.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 40(1):  46-54.

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