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PREDATOR BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

(Contacts)

 

 

          With the exception of the coccinellid beetle, Rodolia cardinalis, for cottony-cushion scale Hister chinensis for houseflies, and perhaps predatory mites, insect predators have not been successfully deployed in classical biological control. Predators usually require more than one host individual to complete their development, which distinguishes them from parasitoids, with which most classical cases of biological control have been accomplished. Native predators, nevertheless, are generally regarded with great importance for maintaining host abundance at lower levels than would be the case without their presence. Research has, therefore, frequently focused attention on predator biology and ecology for a number of agroecosystems, especially orchards, field crops and medical/veterinary entomology. Some of the more significant work setting the pattern for contemporary studies on predation is found in the accompanying references. However, an expanded treatment of predation in aquatic ecosystems may be found in the section on Medical/Veterinary Entomology, <bc-37.htm>, and of predatory mites in the sections on Biological Control by Acarina, <bc-40.htm>, and in Glasshouses , <bc-35.htm>. [Please also see <bc-71.htm> ]

 

 

[Please refer also to Selected Reviews , Staphylinidae &  Detailed Research #1, #2, #3, #4 ] ]

 

REFERENCES: (CLICK on highlighted references to view)  [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library ]

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Abbott, C. E. 1938. The development and general biology of Creophilus villosus Grav. J. New York Ent. Soc. 46: 49-52.

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Alio, A. Y., A. Isaq & L. F. Delfini. 1985. Field trial on the impact of Oreochromis spilurus spilurus on malaria transmission in northern Somalia. WHO/VBC/85.910. 18 p.

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Bay, E. C. 1976. Part I: Parasites and predators introduced against arthropod pests. Diptera, p. 339-46. In: C. P. Clausen (ed.), Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: a world review. U. S. Dept. Agric. Handb. 480.

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1963a   Bay, E. C. & E. F. Legner.  1963.  Quality control in the production of Hippelates collusor (Tsnd.) for use in the search and rearing of   

           their natural enemies.  Proc. New Jersey Mosquito Exterm. Comm. 1963.  403-410.

 

1963b   Bay, E. C. & E. F. Legner.  1963.  The prospect for the biological control of Hippelates collusor (Townsend) in southern California. 

             Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 31:  76-79.

Bay, E. C. & L. S. Self. 1972. Observations of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, in Culex pipiens fatigans breeding sites in Bangkok, Rangoon and Taipei. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 46: 407-16.

1964   Bay, E. C., E. F. Legner & R. Medved.  1964.  Hippelates collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae) as a host for four species of parasitic Hymenoptera in southern California.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 57(5):  582-584.

 

1976  Bay, E. C., C. O. Berg, H. C. Chapman & E. F. Legner.  1976.   Biological control of medical and veterinary pests.  In: "Theory and

            Practice of Biological Control," p. 457-79.  C. B. Huffaker (ed.). Academic Press, Inc., New York, London.  788 pp.         

Beard, R. L. 1964. Parasites of muscoid flies. Bull. World Health Org. 31: 491-93.

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1967   Bennett, F. D. & E. F. Legner.  1967.  Memorandum on the possibilities of biological control of the muscid flies by hymenopterous 

            parasites.  Wld. Hlth. Org. VBC/67.22.  12 pp.        

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Bombosch, S. 1963. Untersuchungen zur Vermehrung von Aphis fabae Scop. in Samenrübenbestanden unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Schwebfliegen (Diptera: Syrphidae). Z. angew. Ent. 52: 105-41.

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Fisher, T. W. 1963. Mass culture of Cryptolaemus and Leptomastix natural enemies of citrus mealybug. Univ. Calif. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 797. 38 p.

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1965   Legner, E. F.  1965.  Un complejo de los artrópodos que influyen los estadios juveniles de Musca domestica L. en Puerto Rico.  Carib. J. Sci. 5(3-4):  109-115.

 

1971  Legner, E. F.  1971.  Some effects of the ambient arthropod complex on the density and potential parasitization of muscoid Diptera in poultry wastes.  J. Econ. Entomol. 64(1):  111-115.

 

1977  Legner, E. F.  1977.  Response of Culex spp. larvae and their natural insect predators to two inoculation rates with Dugesia dorotocephala (Woodworth) in shallow ponds.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 37(3):  435-440.

 

1978a  Legner, E. F.  1978a.  Natural enemies imported in California for the biological control of face fly, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, and horn fly,   Haematobia irritans (L.).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 46:  77-79.

 

1978b  Legner, E. F.  1978b.  Mass culture of Tilapia zillii [Cichlidae] in pond ecosystems.  Entomophaga 23(1):  51-56.

 

1978c  Legner, E. F.  1978c.  Part I:  Parasites and predators introduced against arthropod pests.  Diptera.  In:  Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds:  a World Review (C. P. Clausen, ed.), pp. 335-39;  346-55.  Agric. Handbk. No. 480, ARS, USDA, U. S. Govt. Printing Off., Wash., D. C.  545 pp

 

1979a  Legner, E. F.  1979a.  Advancements in the use of flatworms for biological mosquito control.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 47:  42-43.

 

1979b  Legner, E. F.  1979b.  Considerations in the management of Tilapia for biological aquatic weed control.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc.  47:  44-45.

 

1983   Legner, E. F.  1983.  Imported cichlid behaviour in California.  Proc. Intern. Symp. on Tilapia in aquaculture, Nazareth, Israel, 8-13 May, 1983.  Tel Aviv Univ. Publ. 59-63.

 

1985  Legner, E. F.  1985.  Invertebrate predators other than insects.  In:  Biological Control of Mosquitoes, pp. 46-50 (Chapter 6), H.C. Chapman (ed.).  Bull. No. 6, Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc.  218 pp.

 

1986a  Legner, E. F.  1986a.  Importation of exotic natural enemies.  In:  pp. 19-30, "Biological Control of Plant Pests and of Vectors of Human and Animal  Diseases."  Fortschritte der Zool. Bd. 32:  341 pp.

 

1986b  Legner, E. F.  1986b.  The requirement for reassessment of interactions among dung beetles, symbovine flies and natural enemies.  Entomol. Soc. Amer. Misc. Publ. 61:  120-131.

 

1964   Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1964.  La primera exploración para buscar enemigos naturales de Hippelates en Puerto Rico (Insecta: Chloropidae).  Carib. J. Sci. 4(4):  467-471.

 

1965  Legner, E. F. & E. C. Bay.  1965.  Predatory and parasitic agents attacking the Hippelates pusio complex in Puerto Rico.  J. Agric. Univ.Puerto Rico 49(3):  377-385.

 

1973  Legner, E. F. & W. R. Bowen.  1973.  Influence of available poultry manure breeding habitat on emergence density of synanthropic flies (Diptera).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 66(3):  533-538.

 

1989  Legner, E. F. & E. J. Dietrick.  1989.  Coexistence of predatory Muscina stabulans and Ophyra aenescens [Dipt.: Muscidae] with dipterous prey in poultry manure.  Entomophaga 34(4):  453-461.              

 

1980  Legner, E. F. & T. W. Fisher.  1980.  Impact of Tilapia zillii (Gervais) on Potamogeton pectinatus L., Myriophyllum spicatum var. exalbescens Jepson, and mosquito reproduction in lower Colorado Desert irrigation canals.  Acta Oecologica, Oecol. Applic. 1(1):  3-14.

 

1972  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1972.  Predators investigated for the biological control of mosquitoes and midges at the University of California, Riverside.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 40:  109-111.

 

1973a  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1973a.  Influence of Tilapia mossambica (Peters), T. zillii (Gervais) (Cichlidae) and Mollienesia latipinna LeSueur (Poeciliidae) on pond populations of Culex mosquitoes and chironomid midges.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 33(3):  354-364.

 

1973b  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1973b.  Predation of mosquitoes and chironomid midges in ponds by Tilapia zillii (Gervais) and T.  mossambica (Peters) (Teleosteii: Cichlidae).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 41:  119-121.

 

1974a  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1974a.  The native desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius Baird and Girard, a substitute for Gambusia in  mosquito control?  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 42:  58-59.

 

1974b  Legner, E. F. & R. A. Medved.  1974b.  Laboratory and small-scale field experiments with planaria (Tricladida, Turbellaria) as biological mosquito control agents.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 42:  79-80.

 

1977   Legner, E. F. & I. Moore.  1977.  The larva of Platystethus spiculus Erichson (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and its occurrence in bovine feces in irrigated pastures.  Psyche 84(2):  158-164.

                                                                                                                                  

1964    Legner, E. F. & E. R. Oatman.  1964.  Spiders on apple in Wisconsin and their abundance in a natural and two artificial environments.   Canad. Entomol. 96(9):  1202-1207.

 

1970  Legner, E. F. & G. S. Olton.  1970.  Worldwide survey and comparison of adult predator and scavenger insect populations associated  with domestic animal manure where livestock is artificially congregated.  Hilgardia 40(9):  225-266.

 

1977   Legner, E. F. & F. W. Pelsue.  1977.  Adaptations of Tilapia to Culex and chironomid midge ecosystems in south California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 45:  95-97.

 

1980  Legner, E. F. & F. W. Pelsue, Jr.  1980.  Bioconversion:  Tilapia fish turn insects and weeds into edible protein.  Calif. Agric. 34(11-12):13-14.

 

1983   Legner, E. F. & F. W. Pelsue, Jr.  1983.  Contemporary appraisal of the population dynamics of introduced cichlid fish in south California.  Proc. Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 51:  38-39.

 

1978  Legner, E. F. & S.-C. Tsai.  1978.  Increasing fission rate of the planarian mosquito predator, Dugesia dorotocephala, through biological filtration.  Entomophaga 23(3):  293-298.

 

1990  Legner, E. F. & R. W. Warkentin.  1990.  Rationale for the desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, as a complement to Gambusia in mosquito control.  Calif. Mosq. & Vector Contr. Assoc., Inc. 57:  142-145.

 

1975  Legner, E. F. & H.-S. Yu.  1975.  Larvicidal effects on mosquitoes of substances secreted by the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala

           (Woodworth).  Proc. Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 43:  128-131.

 

1965   Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & C. W. McCoy.  1965.  Parasitic natural regulatory agents attacking Musca domestica L. in Puerto Rico.  J. Agric.  Univ. Puerto Rico 49(3):  368-376.

 

1969  Legner, E. F. & D. J. Greathead.  1969.  Parasitism of pupae in East African populations of Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 62(1):  128-133.

 

1966  Legner, E. F., E. C. Bay & T. H. Farr.  1966.  Parasitic and predacious agents affecting the Hippelates pusio complex in Jamaica and Trinidad.   Canad. Entomol. 98(1):  28-33.

 

1971  Legner, E. F., L. Moore & R. A. Medved.  1971.  Observations on predation of Hippelates collusor and distribution in southern California of associated fauna.  J. Econ. Entomol. 64(2):  461-468.

 

1973   Legner, E. F., W. R. Bowen, W. D. McKeen, W. F. Rooney & R. F. Hobza.  1973.  Inverse relationships between mass of breeding habitatand synanthropic fly emergence and the measurement of population densities with sticky tapes in California inland valleys.  Environ. Entomol. 2(2):  199-205.           

 

1974   Legner, E. F., B. B. Sugerman, H.-S. Yu and H. Lum.  1974.  Biological and integrated control of the bush fly, Musca sorbens Wiedemann  and other filth breeding Diptera in Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands.  Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 1:  1-14.

 

1975a  Legner, E. F., R. A. Medved & W. J. Hauser.  1975.  Predation by the desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius on Culex mosquitoes and benthic chironomid midges.  Entomophaga 20(1):  23-30.         

 

1975b  Legner, E. F., H.-S. Yu, R. A. Medved & M. E. Badgley.  1975b.  Mosquito and chironomid midge control by planaria.  Calif. Agric. 29(11):  3-6.

 

1975c  Legner, E. F., G. S. Olton, R. E. Eastwood & E. J. Dietrick.  1975c.  Seasonal density, distribution and interactions of predatory and  scavenger arthropods in accumulating poultry wastes in coastal and interior southern California.  Entomophaga 20(3):  269-283.

 

1980a   Legner, E. F., R. A. Medved & F. Pelsue.  1980a.  Changes in chironomid breeding patterns in a paved river channel following adaptation of cichlids of the Tilapia mossambica-hornorum complex.  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 73(1):  293-299.

 

1980b  Legner, E. F., D. J. Greathead & I. Moore.  1980b.  Population density fluctuations of predatory and scavenger arthropods in accumulating bovine excrement of three age classes in equatorial East Africa. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 5:  23-44.

 

1980c  Legner, E. F., R. D. Sjogren & L. L. Luna.  1980c.  Arthropod fauna cohabiting larval breeding sites of Leptoconops foulki Clastrier & Wirth in the Santa Ana River, California.  J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 40(1):  46-54.

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