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AUTOCIDAL & PHEROMONAL PEST CONTROL

(Contacts)

 

 

Autocidal Control.--The use of sterile male pestiferous insects has been the primary emphasis in autocidal control, although there has been considerable research in genetic methods, involving the incorporation of lethal traits into a pest's population. The sterile male approach continues to be most widely used, there having been no practical demonstrations with other methods. As none of these methods interfere directly with the natural enemy component, they are generally considered completely compatible with classical and other natural controls. However, the cost of the sterile male approach is generally too high for individual growers, and is usually applied in conjunction with eradication efforts by government agencies.

Autocidal control, because of its focus on the host insect, is considered by some to be out of the realm of biological control, especially as the research is done by a group of scientists that is not usually familiar with natural enemy systems. Its deployment does not involve natural self-perpetuating balances, but rather is aimed at complete destruction of the target pest. Host mass production is one of the principal goals for the successful deployment of autocidal methods, and, therefore, a great amount of research effort and financial support is given to rearing improvement. As the controls are never permanent, it is believed by many thoughtful scientists that this encumbers the discovery of potentially successful classical biological controls by diverting the scientific work force and funds away from traditional biological control research.

Pheromonal Control.--There is a large volume of literature treating of the use of pheromones in pest control, the purpose here being to cite the exceptionally careful work performed in the 1970's and 1980's which laid the groundwork for most of modern application methods. Dr. H. H. Shorey of the University of California was the pioneer and leader of the development of pheromones for pest control.

Pheromonal control is ideal to integrate with living biologcial controls, largely because it is essentially harmless to nontarget organisms. However, its application requires considerable skill to be maximally effective, especially in spacing of pheromone traps. The development of pheromone impregnated strings has allowed for a broader application from aircraft. Nevertheless, it is a method that must be continually applied in order to be effective, and it may or may not be cost effective, depending on the ecosystem, season, year and other factors.

Pertinent references to the initial development of this technology are noted.

REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at  MELVYL Library ]

Ailam, G. & R. Galun. 1967. Optimal sex ratio for the control of insects by the sterility method. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 60: 41-3.

Akira, Tai, F. Matsumura & H. C. Coppel. 1971. Synthetic analogues of the termite trail-following pheromone, structure and biological activity. J. Insect Physiol. 17: 181-88.

Baker, R. H., R. K. Sakai & A. Mian. 1971. Linkage group-chromosome correlation in a mosquito. J. Hered. 62: 31-6.

Bartell, R. J. & H. H. Shorey. 1969a. A quantitative bioassay for the sex pheromone of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptear) and factors limiting male responsiveness. J. Ins. Physiol. 15: 33-40.

Bartell, R. J. & H. H. Shorey. 1969b. Pheromone concentrations required to elicit successive steps in the mating sequence of males of the light-brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62: 1206-7.

Bartell, R. J., H. H. Shorey & L. Barton Browne. 1969a. Pheromonal stimulation of the sexual activity of males of the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Calliphoridae) by the female. Anim. Behav. 17: 576-85.

Bartell, R. J., H. H. Shorey & L. Barton Browne. 1969b. Pheromonal stimulation of the sexual activity of males of the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Calliphoridae) by the female. Anim. Behav. 17: 576-85.

Bartelt, R. J., P. F. Dowd, H. H. Shorey & D. Weisleder. 1991. Aggregation pheromone of Carpophilus freemani (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae): a blend of conjugated triene and tetraene hydrocarbons. Chemoecology 1: 105-13.

Bartelt, R. J., P. F. Dowd, R. S. Vetter, H. H. Shorey & T. C. Baker. 1992. Responses to synthetic pheromone for Carpophilus hemipterus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in California field tests. Environ. Ent. (in press).

Baumhover, A. H. 1963. Influence of aeration during gamma irradiation of screw-worm pupae. J. Econ. Ent. 56: 628-31.

Bellows, T. S., Jr. & T. W. Fisher, (eds) 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  1046 p.

Birch, M., K. Trammel, H. H. Shorey, L. K. Gaston, D. D. Hardee, E. A. Cameron, C. J. Sanders, W. D. Bedard, D. L. Wood, W. E. Burkholder & D. Muller-Schwarze. 1974. Programs utilizing pheromones in survey or control, p. 411-61. In: M. C. Birch (ed.), Pheromones. Elsevier, North Holland.

Bjostad, L. B., L. K. Gaston, L. L. Nobel, J. H. Moyer & H. H. Shorey. 1980a. Dodecyl acetate, a second pheromone component of the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni. J. Chem. Ecol. 6: 727-34.

Bjostad, L. B., L. K. Gaston & H. H. Shorey. 1980b. Temporal pattern of sex pheromone release by female Trichoplusia ni. J. Insect Physiol. 26: 493-8.

Bollinger, J. F., H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1977. Effect of several temperature regimes on the development and timing of responsiveness of males of Trichoplusia ni to the female sex pheromone. Environ. Ent. 6: 311-4.

Bone, L. W. & H. H. Shorey. 1977a. Disruption of sex pheromone communication in a nematode. Science 197: 694-5.

Bone, L. W. & H. H. Shorey. 1977b. Interactive influences of male-produced and female-produced pheromones on male attraction to female Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. J. Parasitol. 63: 845-8.

Bone, L. W. & H. H. Shorey. 1978a. The influence of mating and a protein inhibitor on the response of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis to sex pheromone. Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 45: 264-6.

Bone, L. W. & H. H. Shorey. 1978b. Nematode sex pheromones. J. Chem. Ecol. 4: 595-612.

Bone, L. W., H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1977a. Sexual attraction and pheromonal dosage response of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. J. Parasitol. 63: 364-7.

Bone, L. W., L. B. Bjostad, H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1977b. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: Age and time-of-day effects on pheromone production and response. Expt. Parasitol. 42: 82-6.

Bone, L. W., H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1978. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: Factors influencing movement of males toward a female pheromone. Expt. Parasitol. 44: 100-8.

Bone, L. W., L. K. Gaston, B. D. Hammock & H. H. Shorey. 1979. Chromatographic fractionation of aggregation and sex pheromones of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda). J. Exptal. Zool. 208: 311-8.

Bone, L. W., B. D. Hammock, L. K. Gaston, S. K. Reed & H. H. Shorey. 1980a. Partial purification of the aggregation pheromone Nippolure from female Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda). J. Chem. Ecol. 6: 197-308.

Bone, L. W., B. D. Hammock, L. K. Gaston, S. K. Reed & H. H. Shorey. 1980b. Partial purification of the aggregation pheromone Nippolure from female Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda). J. Chem. Ecol. 6: 197-308.

Bushland, R. C. 1971. Sterility principle for insect control: Historical development and recent innovations, p. 3-14. In: Sterility Principle for Insect Control of Eradication. Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.

Colwell, A. E. & H. H. Shorey. 1975. The courtship behavior of the housefly, Musca domestica (Diptear: Muscidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 68: 152-6.

Colwell, A. E. & H. H. Shorey. 1976. Courtship stimuli affecting female receptivity in the house fly, Musca domestica. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 69: 80-4.

Colwell, A. E. & H. H. Shorey. 1977. Female-produced stimuli influencing courtship of male house flies (Musca domestica). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 70: 303-8.

Colwell, A. E., H. H. Shorey, P. Baumer & S. E. van Vorhis-Key. 1978. Sex pheromone scent marking by females of Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 4: 717-22.

Curtis, C. F. 1968a. A possible method for the control of insect pests with special reference to tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). Bull. Ent. Res. 57: 509-23.

Curtis, C. F. 1968b. Possible use of translocations to fix desirable genes in insect pest populations. Nature (London) 218: 368-69.

Curtis, C. F. 1969. The production of partially sterile mutants in Glossina austeni. Genet. Res. 13: 289-301.

Curtis, C. F. & W. G. Hill. 1971. Theoretical studies on the use of translocations for the control of tsetse flies and other disease vectors. Theoret. Popul. Biol. 2: 71-90.

Curtis, C. F. & P. A. Langley. 1971. The use of chilling and nitrogen in the radiation sterilization of Glossina morsitans. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65: 230.

Curtis, C. F. & A. S. Robinson. 1971. Computer simulation of the use of double translocations for pest control. Genetics 69: 97-113.

Ducoff, H. S. 1972. Causes of death in irradiated adult insects. Biol. Rev. 47: 1-47.

Farkas, S. R. & H. H. Shorey. 1972. Chemical trail following by flying insects: A mechanism for orientation to a distant odor source. Science 178: 67-8.

Farkas, S. R. & H. H. Shorey. 1973. Odor-following and anemotaxis. Science 180: 1302.

Farkas, S. R. & H. H. Shorey. 1974a. Sex pheromones: guidance mechanisms for oreientation to a distant odor source, p. 81-95. In: M. C. Birch (ed.), Pheromones. Elsevier, North Holland.

Farkas, S. R. & H. H. Shorey. 1974b. Sex pheromoens: Guidance mechanisms for orientation to a distant odor source, p. 81-95. In: M. C. Birch (ed.), Pheromones. Elsevier, North Holland

Farkas, S. R. & H. H. Shorey. 1976. Anemotaxis and odor-trail following by the terrestrial snail, Helix aspersa. Anim. Behav. 24: 686-9.

Farkas, S. R., H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1974a. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. Influence of pheromone concentration and visual cues on aerial odor-trail following by males of Pectinophora gossypiella. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 67: 533-8.

Farkas, S. R., H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1974b. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. The use of widely separated evaporators of looplure for the disruption of pheromone communication in Trichoplusia ni. Environ. Ent. 3: 876-7.

Farkas, S. R., H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1974c. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. The use of widely separated evaporators of looplure for the disruption of pheromone communication in Trichoplusia ni. Environ. Ent. 3: 876-7.

Farkas, S. R., H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1974d. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. Influence of pheromone concentration and visual cues on aerial odor-trail followed by males of Pectinophora gossypiella. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 67: 633-8.

Farkas, S. R., H. H. Shorey, & L. K. Gaston. 1974e. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. The use of widely separated evaporators of looplure for the disruption of pheromone communication in Trichoplusia ni. Environ. Ent. 3: 876-7.

Farkas, S. R., H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1975f. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. The influence of prolonged exposure to pheromone on the behavior of males of Trichoplusia ni. Environ. Ent. 4: 737-41.

Ferguson, L., T. Michailides & H. H. Shorey. 1990. The California fig industry. Hort. Rev. 9: 409-90.

Foster, G. G., M. J. Whitten, T. Prout & R. Gill. 1972. Chromosome rearrangements for the control of insect pests. Science 176: 875-80.

Fried, M. 1971. Determination of sterile-insect competitiveness. J. Econ. Ent. 64: 869-72.

Gaston, L. K. & H. H. Shorey. 1964. Sex pheromones of noctuid moths. IV. An apparatus for bioassaying the pheromones of six species. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 57: 779-80.

Gaston, L. K., T. R. Fukuto & H. H. Shorey. 1966. Sex pheromones of noctuid moths. IX. Isolation techniques and quantitative analysis for the pheromones, with special reference to that of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 59: 1062-6.

Gaston, L. K., H. H. Shorey & C. A. Saario. 1967. Insect population control by the use of sex pheromones to inhibit orientation between the sexes. Nature 213: 1155-6.

Gaston, L. K., H. H. Shorey & C. A. Saario. 1971. Sex pheromones of noctuid moths. XVIII. Rate of evaporation of a model compound Trichoplusia ni sex pheromone from different substrates at various temperatures and its appliction to insect orientation. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 64: 381-4.

Gaston, L. K., T. L. Payne, S. Takahashi & H. H. Shorey. 1972. Correlation of chemical structure and sex pheromone activity in Trichoplusia ni (Noctuidae), p. 167-73. In: D. Schneider (ed), Olfaction and Taste IV. Rockefeller Univ. Press, NY.

Gaston, L. K., R. S. Kaae, H. H. Shorey & D. Sellers. 1977. Controlling the pink bollworm by disrupting sex pheromone communication between adult moths. Science 196: 904-5.

Gothilf, S. & H. H. Shorey. 1976. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera: Examination of the role of male scent brushes in courtship behavior of Trichoplusia ni. Environ. Ent. 5: 115-9.

Hirai, K., H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1978. Competition among courting male moths: male-to-male inhibitory pheromone. Science 202: 644-5.

Hogan, T. W. 1971. An evaluation of a genetic method for population suppression of Telleogryllus commodus (Walk.) (Orth. Gryllidae) in Victoria. Bull. Ent. Res. 60: 383-90.

Hooper, G. H. S. 1970. Use of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and cold to immobilize adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly. J. Econ. Ent. 63: 1962-63.

Hooper, G. H. S. 1971. Competitiveness of gamma-sterilized males of the Mediterranean fruit fly: Effect of irradiating pupal or adult stage and of irradiating pupae in nitrogen. J. Econ. Ent. 64: 1364-68.

Hummel, H. E., L. K. Gaston, H. H. Shorey, R. S. Kaae, K. J. Byrne & R. M. Silverstein. 1973. Clarification of the chemical status of the pink bollworm sex pheromone. Science 181: 873-5.

International Atomic Energy Agency. 1968. Isotopes and radiation in entomology. Proc. Symp. Vienna, Dec. 4-8, 1967. Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. 428 p.

International Atomic Energy Agency. 1969. Sterile-male technique for eradication or control of harmful insects. Proc. Panel, Vienna, May 27-31, 1968. Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. 142 p.

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International Atomic Energy Agency. 1971a. Application of induced sterility for control of lepidopterous populations. Proc. Panel, Vienna, June 1-5, 1970. Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. 169 p.

International Atomic Energy Agency. 1971b. Sterility principle for insect control or eradication. Proc. Symp. Athens, Sept. 14-18, 1970. Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. 542 p.

Jefferson, R. N., H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1966. Sex pheromones of noctuid moths. X. The morphology and histology of the female sex pheromone gland of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 59: 1166-9.

Jefferson, R. N., H. H. Shorey & R. E. Rubin. 1968. Sex pheromones of noctuid moths. XVI. The morphology of the female sex pheromone glands of eight species. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61: 861-5.

Jefferson, R. N., R. E. Rubin, S. U. McFarland & H. H. Shorey. 1970. Sex pheromones of noctuid moths. XXII. The external morphology of the antennae of Trichoplusia ni, Heliothis zea, Prodenia ornithogalli, and Spodoptera exigua. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 63: 1227-38.

Jewett, D. M., F. Matsumura & H. C. Coppel. 1976a. Sex pheromone specificity in the pine sawflies: interchange of acid moieties in an ester. Science 192: 51-3.

Jewett, D., F. Matsumura & H. C. Coppel. 1978. Preparation and use of sex attractants for four species of pine sawflies. J. Chem. Ecol. 4(3): 277-87.

Jones, P. A., H. C. Coppel & J. E. Casida. 1965. Collection of additional sex attractant from the virgin female introduced pine sawfly. J. Econ. Ent. 58: 465-66.

Kaae, R. S. & H. H. Shorey. 1972a. Sex pheromones of noctuid moths. XXVII. Influence of wind velocity on sex pheromone releasing behavior of Trichoplusia ni females. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 65: 436-40.

Kaae, R. S. & H. H. Shorey. 1972b. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. XXIX. An improved double-cone trap for males of Trichoplusia ni. Environ. Ent. 1: 1592-3.

Kaae, R. S. & H. H. Shorey. 1973. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. 44. Influence of environmental conditions on the location of pheromone communication and mating in Pectinophora gossypiella. Environ. Ent. 2: 1081-4.

Kaae, R. S., J. R. McLaughlin, H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1972. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. XXXII. Disruption of intraspecific pheromone communication in various species of Lepidoptera by permeation of the air with looplure or hexalure. Environ. Ent. 1: 651-3.

Kaae, R. S., H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1973a. Pheromone concentration as a mechanism for reproductive isolation between two lepidopterous species. Science 179: 487-8.

Kaae, R. S., H. H. Shorey, S. U. McFarland & L. K. Gaston. 1973b. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. XXXVII. Role of sex pheromones and other factors in reproductive isolation among ten species of Noctuidae. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 66: 444-8.

Kaae, R. S. , H. H. Shorey, L. K. Gaston & H. E. Hummel. 1974. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera: Disruption of pheromone communication in Trichoplusia ni and Pectinophora gossypiella by permeation of the air with nonpheromone chemicals. Environ. Ent. 3: 87-9.

Kaae, R. S., H. H. Shorey, L. K. Gaston & D. Sellers. 1977. Sex pheromoens of Lepidoptera: Seasonal distribution of males of Pectinophora gossypiella in a cotton-growing area. Environ. Ent. 6: 284-6.

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Matsumura, F., T. Akira, H. C. Coppel & M. Imaida. 1979. Chiral specificity of the sex pheromone of the red-headed pine sawfly, Neodiprion lecontei. J. Chem. Ecol. 5(2): 237-49.

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McLaughlin, J. R., L. K. Gaston, H. H. Shorey, H. E. Eummel & F. D. Stewart. 1972b. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. XXXIII. Evaluation of the disruptive effect of tetradecyl acetate on sex pheromone communication in Pectinophora gossypiella. Environ. Ent. 1: 1592-3.

McLaughlin, J. R., R. S. Kaae, H. H. Shorey & L. K. Gaston. 1973. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. XXXIX. Comparison of virgin female moths and hexalure as attractants for male Pectinophora gossypiella. Environ. Ent. 2: 488-9.

Mohamed, M. A. & H. C. Coppel. 1987a. Pheromonal basis of courtship behavior in two gypsy moth parasitoids: Brachymeria intermedia (Nees) and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae). J. Echm. Ecol. 13(5): 1099-13.

Mohamed, M. A. & H. C. Coppel. 1987b. Pheromonal basis for aggregation behavior of parasitoids of the gypsy moth: Brachymeria intermedia (Nees) and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae). J. Chem. Ecol. 13(6): 1385-93.

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